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Circulatory System

Stack #71694

QuestionAnswer
Circulatory System Consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood Transports oxygen and nutrients TO the body cells Transports carbon dioxide and metabolic materials AWAY from the body cells
Heart oMuscular, hallow organ functions as pump oSize of a closed fist oLocation- behind the sternum, tilted to the left
Endocardium inside layer (smooth)
Myocardium middle layer (muscle)
Pericardium outer covering; double layer membrane (lubricates)
Septum middle separating wall
Heart Chambers •Upper chambers- atrium (left & right) •Lower chambers- ventricles (right & left)
Valves prevent backflow of blood
Tricuspid (right) between atrium/ventricle
Pulmonary between right ventricle & pulmonary artery /ventricle
Mitral (left) between atrium/ventricle
Aortic between left ventricle and aorta
Blood Vessels blood carried throughout body)
Arteries carry blood AWAY from heart
Arterioles smallest branches of arteries
Capillaries smallest branches of arteries
Veins carry blood TO heart
Venules smallest branches of veins
Pathway of Blood thru Heart/Body Inferior/superior vena Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Arteries Lungs Pulmonary veins Left atrium Mitral valve Left Ventricle Aortic valve Aorta Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Body cells-Venules-Vein
Systoles period of contraction (ventricles)
Diastole period of rest (ventricle)
Conductive Pathways oElectrical impulses originating in the heart cause cyclic contraction of cardiac muscle oRecordings (EKG/ECG) can detect disease and abnormal activity
Abnormal Conductive Pathways oArrhythmias- interference with normal electrical conduction pattern of heart = abnormal heart rhythms
Purkinje fibers network of nerve fibers throughout ventricles; causing all muscle tissue in ventricles to contract
Sinoartrial (SA) node (pacemaker) Sends electrical impulse that spread out over the muscles in atria
Atrial muscles contract and push blood into ventricles
Arioventricluar (AV) node electrical impulse sent to AV node- located between atrium and ventricle
Bundle of His receive impulse from AV node- located in septum; right & left bundle branches
Right Bundle Branch send impulses to ventricle
Left Bundle Brance send impulses to ventricle
Average adult Blood 4-6 quarts
Blood  Transports many substances; solid elements
Plasma fluid (55% of total blood composition- and is 90% water)
Erythrocytes or red blood cells live about 120 days Hemoglobin Gives blood red color •Carries oxygen, iron, carbon dioxide
Leukocytes WBC’s- not as numerous as RBC’s Formed in bone marrow & lymph tissue Live about 3-9 days Can pass thru capillary wall and enter tissue
Phagocytosis engulfing, ingesting or destroying pathogens
Main function of Leukocytes fight infection
Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria by secreting lysozyme (enzyme)
Eosinophils remove toxins and defend body from allergic reaction by producing antihistamines
Basophils oInflammatory response oProduce histamine oVasodiliation oProduction of Heparin (anticoagulant)
Monocytes phagocytize bacteria and foreign materials
Lymphocytes oProvide immunity for body developing antibodies oProtect against formation of cancer cells
Thrombocytes Clot blood
Anemia decrease in red blood cells(RBC), hgb or both
Aplastic Anemia result of injury or destruction of bone marrow, chemotherapy
Pernicious Anemia caused by the lack of intrinsic factor(need in order to absorb B12), causing large blood cells
Sickle Cell Anemia inherited condition, chronic, results in abnormal crescent shaped RBC’s
Anemia Symptoms pale, fatigue, respirations increase, heart rate increases
Anemia Cause not making enough blood cells, or losing blood
Anemia Treatment iron supplements, transfusions
Aneurysm ballooning out of an artery wall
Aneurysm Symptoms none (people with high BP are usually more prone)
Aneurysm Causes the artery wall becomes stretched because of the ballooning and it becomes weak
Arteriosclerosis hardening/thickening of artery wall
Atherosclerosis fatty plaques on artery walls
Atherosclerosis Treatment Angioplasty (used to remove/compress deposits or insert stent to allow blood flow)
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) heart muscle doesn’t beat adequately to supply blood needs of body
CHF Symptoms cyanosis, shortness of breath(dyspnea), pale, edema (excess fluid)
CHF Causes heart attack, hypertension
CHF Treatment diuretics, oxygen, bed rest, low sodium
Embolus foreign substance circulating in blood stream (air, fat, bacteria, etc.)
Hemophilia inherited disease, usually occurs in males, blood does not clot
Hypertension high blood pressure
Hypertension Risk Factors  Obesity, race, smoking, aging
Hypertension Treatment antihypertensive meds, diuretics, limit stress, no tobacco, low sodium diet
Hypertension left untreated congestive heart failure, stroke, heart attack
Leukemia malignant disease of bone marrow or lymph tissue. Results in high number of immature white blood cells(WBC)
Leukemia Symptoms fatigue, pallor, fever, anemia excessive bruising, joint pain
Leukemia Treatment chemo, radiation, bone marrow transplant
Myocardial Infarction heart attack; occurs when coronary arteries cuts off blood supply to heart; death of heart muscle/tissue
Myocardial Infarction Symptoms severe crushing pain (angina pectoris) radiating to arm, neck, and jaw; pressure in chest, perspiration and cold, clammy skin; dyspnea, change in blood pressure; death may occur
Myocardial Infarction Treatment clot busting drugs, bed rest, Oxygen, pain meds, anticoagulants, meds to control arrhythmias, diet, weight control, avoid tobacco & stress
Phlebitis inflammation of vein
Varicose Veins dilated, swollen veins that have lost elasticity; cause stasis (decreased blood flow)
Thrombophlebitis inflammation of vein with clot formation
Created by: elizabeth265