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Chapter 3 - Terms

Economic Renewal and Wars of Religion (1560 - 1648)

Vikings from Scandinavia; explored Northeast America in 10th/11th century
Marco Polo Italian who explored China in 13th century; not part of the age of exploration but writings inspired later explorers
Prince Henry aka ___ ___ the Navigator; Portuguese who tryies to find water route to Chine by water; establishes Portuguese exploration and encourages it
Bartholomeu Dias Portuguese who landed in south africa in 1488; discovers tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) and confirms that Portuguese can get to China from around Africa
Vasco da Gama Portuguese who finally reached Asia(China) in 1498; 1st European to get to Asia by water; establishes Portuguese as dominant country in trade with Asia
Christopher Columbus an Italian who sailed for Spain who discovered the "West Indies" from 1492-1504; inspired to find another route to China; Italian city-states cant afford to finance so he goes to Spain instead; convinced he reached outlying islands of Asia
John Cabot Italian who sailed for England and explored northeast north america; thought that if he went farther north, he could get to China
Pedro Cabral Portuguese that explored Brazil in 1500; Brazil is only south american portuguese colony due to Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas spilt Asia along a line of latitude into Spain and Portuguese territory; line of latitude extended to South America
Amerigo Vespucci Italian that explored for Potugual and mapped out east south america from 1501 - 1504; mapped Cabral's colony - begins to conclude that it isnt just an island "that's not Asia!"; gets credit and America's are named after him
Vasco Nunez de Balboa Spainard who explored Panama in 1513; first European to see Pacific from Americas; named Pacific Ocean
Magellan Spainard who sailed for Portugal and sailed around the world from 1519-1522; begins new era of Age of Exploration; big search to find northwest and southwest passage to Asia
Cortes Spainish conquistador who explored Mexico and defeated the Aztecs in 1519; defeated due to new diseases, help from other indians, more powerful weapons
Giovanni da Verranzano Italian who sailed for France; explored northeast north america in 1523
Jacques Cartier Frenchman who explored Quebec in 1533; in search of northwest passage
Francisco Pizarro Spainard who explored Peru and defeated the Incas in 1535; Spanish conquistador; defeated due to introduction of new diseases, hatred of other Indian tribes, better weapons
Sir Frances Drake Englishman who traveled around the world in the late 16th century; tried to weaken Spanish hold on new world; a privateer/sea dog (like a pirate); second man to travel around the world
Sir Walter Raleigh Englishman who founded Virginia in 1585; wants to establish an English colony in North America
Samuel de Champlain Frenchmen who explored northeast North America in 1608; in search of northwest passage
Henry Hudson England/Holland who explored northeast North America in early 17th century; looking for Northwest Passage
Robert LaSalle Frenchman who explored the Mississippi Valley in the 17th century; land later know as the Louisiana (Louisisana Purchase)
entrepreneur the foundation of capitalism; business person who puts capital at risk (can't have merchantilism unless someone takes a risk)
Johann Fugger first of the German Fugger's, a wealthy German banking family; loaned money and charged a lot of interest on it
usury the practice of lending someone money and charging interest at a right rate; used by Fuggers to make money
Fuggerism the act of lending money and charging a large interest; basically usuary, made famous by the Fuggers
mercantilism country wants to be wealthy, self-sufficient, strong; on an international level this means export more and import less; contries that want to be powerful adopt this policy; for raw materials + natural resources, got to get colonies that have the materials
English Poor Law example of mercantilist policy; forced England's homeless/beggars out of the cities and into work; gov. saying 'you have to go to work and contribute to our sucess'; not a sign of compassion; plus beggars were annoying
bourgeoisie the middle class; often exploited working class
grammar schools England's secondary/high-school like education; education like this could help advance people's social position
colleges French secondary education; education could help advance people's social position
hidalgos what lesser nobles were called in Spain; overlapped with 'middle class' due to education and wealth of middle class
plebeians name for the entire middle class; from big merchants to modest store owners
Junkers lords of northeast Germany; benifited from rising prices and growing agricultural market
hereditory subjection what serfs/serfdom was called in Germany; couldn't do anything, go anywhere without the lord of the manor's permission
robot peasants owing three or four days a week of forced labor; called this in eastern europe; like a poor man's tax (labor tax)
corvee 10 or so days a year that a French peasant owed a lord forced labor; poor man's tax (labor tax)
internal tariffs taxes on imported goods between states of countries, like in New Jersey had a tax on PA; within mercantilism, this system of taxes is a big no - we dont want internal competition, we want economic unity
Ferdinand I inherited the Austrian branch (aka good ol' Holy Roman Empire and Austria) from his father Charles V
Phillip II inherited everything outside of the Holy Roman Empire (aka Netherlands and Iberian penninsula) from father Charles V; "Mr. Counter Reformation"
siglo de oro the 'golden age' of Spain's culture; 1550 - 1650 (you can see that it decline after end of 30 Year's War); this is to Spain as quatrocento is to Italy
Cervantes author of the book Don Quixote
Don Quixote book by Cervantes; example of the richness of Spain's culture
Escorial home of Phillip II; shows his extreme Catholic beliefs, looks and has the feel of a church
Duke of Alva first sent by Phillip II to try and reign in the Dutch revolt; leader of the Council of Troubles aka Council of Blood
Council of Troubles aka Council of Blood; led by the Duke of Alva; an agressive group that tried to bring the Dutch Rebellion back to Spain through force
Low Countries name for the Netherlands; called this because of elevation
Holland province of Netherlands; developed rapidly in 15th century; this is to Netherlands as England is to Great Britian
Zeeland province of the Netherlands;
Joyeuse Entree the Dutch constitution that had Republic/ democratic beginnings
idolatry worship of an object/idol; protestants want to turn away from this because they view it as a christian trait
Council of Blood aka the Council of Troubles; led by the Duke of Alva; an agressive group that tried to bring the Dutch Rebellion back to Spain through force
William of Orange (William the Silent) he is to Dutch as George Washington is to America; leader of the Dutch revolt
sea dogs fishing
Mary Queen of Scots next rightful heir to Henry VIII after Queen Elizabeth (cousin of Tudors); Catholic and wants to kill Elizabeth; her plots back fire and she gets executed
Mary Stuart next rightful heir to Henry VIII after Queen Elizabeth (cousin of Tudors); Catholic and wants to kill Elizabeth; her plots back fire and she gets executed
Don Juan Phillip II's half brother; second man that Phillip II sends to the Netherlands to stop the Dutch revolt; wanted to use Netherlands as a base for an invasion of England where he would then kill Elizabeth, marry Mary Stuart and become king of England
Prince of Parma third man sent to Netherlands to end Dutch rebellion; didn't use force like others, but rallied southern support through diplomacy and got 10 provinces to stay with Spain
Union of Utrecht formed by the seven northern Netherland provinces; official brake from Spain would occur 2 years later
United Provinces of the North Northern Netherlands declare official independence from Spain; these provinces are called the Dutch Republic, or Holland
Dutch Republic aka Holland or the United Provinces of the North; right after severn northern Netherland provinces declared independence from Spain
Earl of Leichester general of British troops sent to help the Netherlands; sent by England to lead military efforts against Spain; both enemies of each other, but 'the enemy of my enemy is my friend'
armada catolica the Spanish Armada (1588); Spain is done playing games with England and attacks (justified by the death of Mary Stuart, Protestant vs Catholic, English knighting of sea dogs that attack Spainish ships); English stopped them in sea, kept off coastline
'Protestant Wind' strong wind that kept Spanish ships from reaching England during the Spanish Armada; blew remaining ships to northern seas where the Spainairds had no maps
Twelve Years' Truce gave northern Netherland temporary independence; the 7 Netherland provinces north of line are free and called the Dutch; 10 provinces under line are with Spain and called the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands south of line of partition set in Twelve Years' Truce; the 10 provences that stay with the Spanish crown (therefore Catholic); modern day Belgium
toleration to put up with; does country allow religious minorites to practice faith?; Spain: not tolerant; England: kinda; Netherlands: most tolerant country at this time (turn of 16th century)
Wars of Religion wars over religion occuring in France, Germany, Netherlands and England; religious and politically based; weakened some countries and strengthened others
ius reformandi old medival policy where state has religious power over emperor; "they get to pick" ex: Peace of Augsbourg; more modern is when king gets to pick
Henry II dies in jousting tournament; his death throws France into a state of turmoil; his widow Catherine de Medici runs country using her sons as puppets
Catherine de Medici wife of Henry II; becomes 'villian' of the time period; uses sons as puppets and took advantage of her husband's death; she order's St. Bartholomew's Day
St. Bartholomew's Day French Catholics, supported by Catherine de Medici, rounded up Huguenots and killed 3000 on the eve of this day
Francis II Henry II's eldest; rules for one year
Charles IX Henry II's second son; rules for 14 years
Henry III Henry's eldest son; rules for 15 years before being killed in the War of the Three Henry's
Admiral de Coligny a leader of the Huguenots
Henry of Bourbon (Henry of Navarre) leader of Huguenots; winner of the war of the Three Henry's and claims French crownm, becoming Henry IV
Duke of Guise (Henry of Guise) leader of the Roman Catholics in France; faught in the War of the Three Henrys, but was killed
politiques politicians who were willing to put religous matters aside to do what was best for the country; the first moderates; kinda heroic because you have enemies on both sides
Jean Bodin advocates absolute monarchy, should be in total control; built out of caos (Wars of Religion); people are more willing to compromise dignity and freedom for protection; 'divine rights' - works for 90% of population
Henry IV formerly known as Henry of Bourbon; a politique who convirts to Catholisism after taking the crown, but passes the Edict of Nantes for the Huguenots; has the guts to be 'in the middle' and do what's right for his country
Edict of Nantes a religious compromise that gives Hugunots political tolerance but limited social tolerance; puts religion aside in favor of France's unity;
Estates General the parlement of France that hardly ever meets; in Wars of Religion, they are called when Henry IV dies and set Cardinal Richelieu in charge; tell Richelieu and Louis XIII that 'we're going home, we can't handle it, you do'
Marie de Medici Henry IV's wife and eventual widow
Louis XIII Henry IV's son; king of France, but lets Cardinal Richelieu run the country for him
Cardinal Richelieu keeps ruling France for Louis XIII even as he grows up; turns France into an absolute monarcy
Duke of Rohan led another Huguenot rebellion during Louis XIII and Richelieu's reign (not satisfied with Edict of Nantes); crushed by Richelieu and as a result, Huguenots get rights stripped away from them
Peace of Alais peace after the Huguenot rebellion during Richelieu's reign; ends up giving Huguenots less rights than they had before
Intendants Cardinal Richelieu's eyes and ears in the French provences; people sent to tell what he wants done and how he wants them to do it
Palatinate a German state that became Calvinist; located by the river Rhine; leader was the Elector Palatine
Elector Palatine Calvinist leader of Palatinate; one of seven who eleceted Holy Roman Emperor; invited by Bohemia to become their leader
Bohemians those who live in Bohemia (modern day Czechs); 1618 revolt against Catholic Hapsburg emperor sparked 30 Years War
Swiss Cantons Spain wanted to conquere these lands in order to enhance access to the Netherlands
defenestration of Prague Prague = capital of Bohemia; when Bohemians threw out the Catholic king of their country; sparked the 30 Years War
Battle of the White Mountain first battle of the 30 Years' War
Albert of Wallenstein pro-Catholic who led army against Kuke of Hostein (pro-protestant); wanted to covert the Denmarks back to Catholicism
Edict of Restitution ended the Danish phase of the 30 Years' War; emperor of HRE declared all church territories secularized since 1552 to return to Catholism; seemed like Protestant Reformation was dead
Gustavus Adolphus Swedish king during the 30 Years' War; extended Sweden's overseas holdings and created a modern army; Protestant champion
Peace of Prague of 1635 end of Swedish phase of the 30 Years' War; annuled most of the Edict of Restitution
Peace of Westphalia of 1648 end of Swedish-France phase and 30 Years' War; renewed Peace of Augsburg, plus Calvinism; German states virtually sovereign; France, Sweden get new land; Dutch Republic and Swiss Cantons gain independence;
effects of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 (overall) weakened Hapsburg states of Austria and Spain; strengthened France; ended Age of the Wars of Religion; the first Europe-wide meeting conducted w/out the pope and influence of the Roman Catholic Church; introduced the modern state system of Europe
modern state system (of Europe) Europe is recognized as a group of independent states that could negotioate for themselves; done pretending that Eurpoe was one
effects of the 30 Years' War (Germany) population decreased; trade and agriculture was disruptive; economy ruined; long and difficult recovery - wouldnt be until 19th century for a German unification
30 Years' War War of Schmalkaldic League pt 2; religious conflict in Holy Roman Empire as a result of Peace of Augsburg; civil war of Catholic vs Protestant; civil war of strong central power vs independece of states; international war of Hapsburgs vs everyone else
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