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Human Structure Wk 2

What is myotome? All MM innervated by a single spinal nerve
What is dermatome? all skin innervated by a single spinal nerve
What do motor nerves attach to? Muscles
What could occur if the brachial artery bifurcated high? And what are the symptoms? ulnar artery may course superficial to the flexor MM and may be mistaken for the ulnar vein when an IV is started. The drugs injected into the capillary bed damages it and results in gangrene.
What Artery are you feeling when you take a pulse in the wrist? Radial A or radial pulse
Which aretery do you listen to with your stethoscope when taking blood pressure? The brachial A lies in the cubital fossa and when taking a blood pressure this is what you are listening to with your stethoscope.
What divides the axillary A into 3 parts? pectoralis minor
What are some AA involved in the scapular anastamoses? suprascapular A, dorsal scapular A, circumflex scapular A, posterior humeral cicumflex A, posterior intercostal A
What movements can not be done with Erb palsy? What is the characteristic sign? What is injured? Can not laterally rotate, abduct, or flex; waiter's tip hand; upper trunk
>Why is it called monkey hand? beccause the thenar eminence becomes flattened due to lack of work because median nerve has been severed
what are the syptoms of injury to musculocutaneous N? causes weakness of supination and flexion of forearm and loss of sensation on the lateral side of forearm. Because remember the musuclocutaneous nerve turns into the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve.
what two injuries cause wrist drop? injury to posterior cord [crutch palsy] and injury to radial nerve from fracture of the midshaft of the humerus
A broken surgical neck of the humerus might injure what two structures? What movements can't be done? And which M could still assist in one of those movements? axillary nerve, aposterior circuflex humeral artery; weakness of lat rotation and abduction of arm; supraspinatus can abduct the arm but not to a horizontal level
What is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? caused by compression of the median nerve due to inflammation or thickening of the synovial sheaths. Pain, Paresthesisa [tingling, burning, numbness]
What is it called to have a supernumerary breast? polymastia
What is it called to have a supernumerary nipple? Polythelia
What kind of joint is the interphalangeal joint and what is its movement? hinge joint; flex and extend
What kind of joint is the metacarpophalangeal joint and what is its movement? condyloid joint; flex, extend, abduct, adduct
What kind of joint is the carpometacarpal joint and what is its movement? saddle joint between trapezium and the 1st metacarpal bone ; flex, extend, abduct, adduct, and circumduct; also plane joints between carpal bones and four metacarpal- sliding and gliding
What kind of joint is the midcarpal joint and what is its movement? plane joint; between proximal and distal carpal rows; gliding and sliding
What kind of joint is the radiocarpal joint and what is its movement? condylar joint; flex, extend, abduct, adduct, circumduct
What kind of joint is the proximal radioulnar joint and what is its movement? pivot joint; pronate and supinate; head of radius rotates within the encircling annular ligament
What kind of joint is the distal radioulnar joint and what is its movement? pivot joint; supinate, pronate
ermatome C2 Top of skull -Dermatome
Dermatome C3-4 Neck - Dermatome
Dermatome C5 Shoulder and Lateral Arm - Dermatome
Dermatome C6 Lateral Forearm and Thumb - Dermatome
Dermatome C7 Index and Middle Digit - Dermatome
Dermatome C8 Medial Hand/ Forearm - Dermatome
Dermatome T1 Medial Arm / Axilla - Dermatome
Dermatome T4 Nipple Line - Dermatome
Dermatome T7 Xiphoid Process - Dermatome
Dermatome T10 Umbilicus [Appendix] - Dermatome
Dermatome L1 Inguinal Ligament - Dermatome
Dermatome L4 Medial Leg /Foot - Dermatome
Dermatome L5 Lateral Leg - Dermatome
Dermatome S1 Lateral Foot/ Back of Leg - Dermatome
Dermatome S2-5 Genitals - Dermatome
Which bones make up the pectoral girdle? clavicle, scapula and the humerus
What are cleavage lines? skin tension lines, correspond to the natural oreintation of collagen fibers in the dermis and epidermis
Which vertebra provide support for the pelvic girdle? sacral and coccygeal
Which vertebrae allow flexibility and movement? cervical thoracic and lumbar
What makes up the axial skeleton? ribs, sternum, skull, and vertebrae; NOT THE CLAVICLE
What is a suture? fibrous joint; rigid joint
What unites 2 adjacent vertebra? intervertebral disks and articular processes
Which regions are your 2 primary curvatures? thoracic and sacral coccygeal
Which regions are your secondary curvatures? cervical and lumbar
What is lordosis? an inward curvature ofa portion of the lumbar and cervical region
Which back MM are involved in respiration? serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior, levator costarum?
What are the borders of the triangle of auscultation? latissimus dorsi, trapezius, medial margin of scapula
What are the borders of the lumbar triangle? latissimus dorsi, iliac crest, external oblique M
Where would a lumbar hernia occur occasionaly? lumbar triangle
Where would a nerve be found on a muscle? middle deep side of muscle; equatorial plane of muscle
Almost all "limb" MM this includes superficial back are from where? the brachial plexus; ie. Thoracodorsal N [latissimsus dorsi] is off the posterior cord
What movement could you not do if you cut the accessory nerve? could not pick up shoulder
Which artery supplies all of the limb? And what supplies the scapula? Subclavian A; still the subclavian A because remember the scapula is part of the appendicular [limb] MM
What is a lateral bend of the spine? And what complications would it cause? How does it occur? scoliosis; pushing on breast cavity, due to unequal growth of the vertebral column
Who has hyperlordosis? What is it from? pregnant women; trunk muscle weakness and osteomalacia [softening of bones due to lack of vitamin D]
What is another name for a hunchback? What could cause it? Excessive thoracic kyphosis; osteoporosis
What is Pott's Disease? Tuberculosis of the spine which leads to kyphosis
What is Scheuermann's disease? juvenile kyphosis; due to front of vertebra not growing as fast as back
What does the notochord turn into? nucleus pulposus
What is annulus fibrosis? fibrocartilage
In what direction does a herniated disk occur and what does it affect? posterior laternal; impinges on spinal nerves and roots
Where is a herniatedisk most common? lumbar vertebra
Where do spinal nerves arise in relation to intervertebral disk? above the intervertebral disk; so that nerve won't be impinged if herniated disk
What does the ligamentum flavum do? connects the laminae of 2 adjacent vertebra; helps maintain upright posture; lots of elastic fibers
What does the postrior longitudinal ligmaent do? prevents hyperflexion
What does the anterior longitudinal ligament do? prevents hyperextension
What goes through the transverse foramen? intervertebral A or vertebral A
What does the supraspinous ligament do? connect the spinous processes together
What does the interspinous ligament do? connect the spinous processes together
What ligament is from the dens to the occiput? Alar ligament
Which ligament helps with the atlantoaxial joint? cruciate ligament by holding the dens in place
What is a continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament? Tectorial Membrane
What movement is permitted by the atlantooccipital joint? And what kind of joint is it? flexion and extension; Yes; it is a condylar synovial joint
What kind of joint is the atlantoaxial joint and what movement does it allow? 2 lateral plane joints and a pivot joint. Rotation and lateral flexion. "No" movement.
What makes the vertebral arch? pedicle and lamina
What part of the vertebral column bares the weight? vertebral body
What kind of joints do articular facets make? Plane synovial joints; gliding movement
What bony defect is caused by spinal bifida occulta? vertebral arch doesn't fuse
What part of the vertebra forms the intervertebral foramen? superior and inferior vertebral notches
What are between the Superior and inferior articular facets of the vertebrae? interspinous and supraspinous ligaments
What does spondyl mean? vertebra
What occurs in a hangman fracture? pedicles of the axis are fractured and the cruciform ligament is torn causing the spinal cord to be crushed
What allows for the range of motion of the vertebra? articular facets; remember they are plane joints allowing for a gliding motioni
What is the name of C7? Vertebrata prominens [spinous process not bifid]
What does the nuchal ligament do? Helps support the head over the vertebral column [huge I nhorese]
Rib 7 would articulate with which 2 vertebra? T6 and T7; superior facet connects with the corresponding rib
What does the transverse costal facet articulate with? tubercle of ribs
What movement do lumbar vertebra have? left right wisting and lateral flexion; more mvoement than thoracic vertebrae
What attaches to the mammillary processes of the lumbasr vertebrae? multifidi M
What is the modified/fused transveres process of sacrum called? Ala
What is the fused bodies of sacral vertebra called? sacral promentory
Where do you inject anesthesia? sacral hiatus
Why would there be more thean 4 coccyx vertebra? 9 somites must degenerate
Which AA supply the vertebra in the cervical region? Subclavian A branches: Vertebral A and Ascending Cervical
Which AA supply the thoracic and lumbar vertebra? posterior interocstals off the aorta and lumbar AA off the aorta
Which AA supply the sacral vertebra? Lateral sacral off the internal iliac A
Whatare the segmental AA? I think they are the posterior intercostal and the lumbar AA
What is the most common site for bony metastases? Why? vertebral column; these VV are valveless permitting blood to flow superior or inferior depending on blood pressure
Describe the venous system of the vertebral column. There are Anterior and posterior external vertebral plexuses which are connected to an internal vertebral plexus [in the epidural space] by communication VV
Which spinal cord region has the greatest range of motion? cervical region
Where does the spinal cord end? L1-L2
What causes Cauda Equina Syndrome and what are the symtoms? interruption of the cauda equina below L2 by trauma. Causes urine or fecal incontinence with saddle"numbness"
What are the AA that supply the spinal cord? 1 anterior spinal A and 2 posterior spinal AA
Where is the cervical enlargement? C4-T1
Where is the lumbar enlargement? L2-S3
Where do you get a spinal tap? usually between L3 and L4 or L4 and L5. Below the conus medullaris [L2]; CSF from the subarachnoid space
When does the dural sac end? S2
Which meninge has blood vessels? pia mater
What are the lateral extensions of pia mater called and what do they do? Denticulate ligament; hold psinal cord in position within the subarachnoid space
Where is the CSF around the spinal cord? in the subarachnoid space
What does the rami communicans do? connects the sympathetic chain ganglia to the dorsal and ventral primary rami
Where are the preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic cell bodies? Intermediolateral cell column of lateral horn of the spinal cord
What does the autonomic nervous system control? viscera
What does the somatic nervsous system control? voluntary control of skeletal MM
Name the apaces and meninges in order. epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoi spce, pia mater, spinal cord
Name what the needle would penetrate when doing a spinal tap. supraspinal ligament, Interspinal ligament, Ligamentum Flavum, Epidural spcae, dura mater, Subdural space, Arachnoid mater
What is and What causes Spinal Stenosis? narrowing of spinal column that causes pressure on the spinal cord. Usually occurs as a person ages and the disks become drier and shrink or as bones and ligaments swell and grow larger due to arthritis.
What is polio? Poliomyelitis is a viral dsiease that can lead to paralysisi. It affects the meninges of the central nervous system.
What is Shingles? Herpes Zoster, caused by varicella zoster virus that remains latenet in the dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves. Causes severe neurologic pain and a rash in the nerves dermatome.
What do glial cells do? provide support, nutrients, clean-up
What are 2 names for a cell body? perikaryon and soma
What are collaterals? branches of axons that usually feed into another soma
What kind of conduction do dendrites have? passive membrane
What properties does the axon hillock have? action potential generated; active membrane properties; no decrease in potetntial with propagation
What is an oligodendrocyte? forms the myelin sheath in the CNS
What is a Schwann cell? forms the myelin sheath in the PNS
What is multiple sclerosis? chronic disease caused by destruction of myelin I spinal cord and brain; may be autoimmune; muscle weakness,numbness, pain; 3 x more in females then males
What is at the terminal button? synapse
Where do you find bipolar neurons? in special sensory processes like smell, taste, sight and hearing
Where do you find pseudounipolar neurons? sensory info; remember the cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion; one end is in the PNS and one end is in the CNS
Where do you find multipolar neurons? motor neurons, neurons in the brain; interneurons
What are cortical neurons and what do they do? nerves that make up the cortex of the brain; aid in memory, mood, behanvior, feeding, reasoning along with sensory and motor
What does the brain stem and spinal cord deal with? somatic sensory, motor and special senses
Are the cranial nerves part of the CNS or PNS? PNS
What are groups of cell bodies call in the CNS? PNS? Nuclei; Ganglia
What are groups of axons called in the CNS? PNS? Tracts, nerves
What does somatic deal with? conscious control of skeletal M and awareness of stimuli. Motor neurons to skeletal M. Sensory endings to activate neves that carry info to your perceptive brain.
What is Visceral? things that happen that you may or may not be aware of an any given moment, ie. Contraction of smooth M; breathing; also deals with visceral sensory [osmolarity in blood]
What's another name for an alpha motor neuron? somatic motor nerve
Where are the somatic motor neuron cell bodies located? anterior [ventral] horn
Which system is catabolic metabolism involved in? sympathetic
Which system is anabolic metabolism involved in? parasympathetic
Blood to genitals causing an erection is caused by which system [para or sym]? parasympathetic
Ejaculation is caused by which system [para or sym]? sympathetic
Where is the pregangilionic cell body located in the parasympathetic division? Intermediolateral synapse of lateral horn in either cranio or sacral portion of spinal cord
Where does the preganglionic neuron synapse in the parasympathetic division ? at , in or near the target organ
Where are the postganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathetic division? at the synapse with the preganglionic neuron, in or near the target organ
Where are the synapses for preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division going to the bodyn located? sympathetic chain or in the preaotic ganglionated plexus
Where are the sypathetic preganglion neurons's cell bodies [going to the body] located? intermediolateral part of lateral horn in T1 - L2 of the spinal cord [thoracolumbar division]
Where are the sympathetic postganglionic cell bodies [going to the body] located? sympathetic chain ganglions or the preaortic ganglionated plexus.
What is the rami communicantes? communicating branch between the spinal nerve and sympathetic trunk
Where is the white rami in the sympathetic nervous system? It is the preganglionic neuron which travels up and down the sympathetic chain to the ganglion closest to the target organ. It synapes in that ganglion and the postganglion is gray rami because it is so close to the organ it does not need to go fast.
Where do the sympathetic splanchnic nerves arise? from the sympathetic chain
Where do the parasympathetic pelvic splanchnics arise? from S2-4 ventral primary rami
What are splanchnic nerves? paried nerves that contribute to the innevation of the viscera
Where is the cell body of a preganglionic neuron of the sympathetic NS going to the viscera located? intermediolateral synapse
Where does the preganglionic neuron of the sympathetic NS going to the viscera synapse? What kind of nerves are they and what region of the spinal cord do they come from? preaortic ganglia [between sympathetic chain and ganglia] ; splanchnic nerve; from thoracic lumbar or sacral region
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system come from? CN III, VII, IX, and X [oculomoter, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus] or pelvic splanchnics
How do postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic NS going to viscera travel? they run with blood vessels to organ
Other than the ligamentum nuchae what other feature of the neck is importatnt in animals? platysma
What is the roof of the posterior triangle ? investing layer of deep cervical fascia; most superficial part of the deep cervical fascia and it encloses the whole neck
What 3 fascias make up the carotid sheath? pretracheal, investing layer, prevertebral layer
What is the floor of the posterior triangle? prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia
The ansa cervicales has two parts. What are they and where do they come from? Decendens cervicales from C2 and decendens hypoglossal from C1
What is in the carotid sheath? common carotid A, internal jugular V, vagus N
What is the brachial plexus between? anterior and middle scalene
What separates the subclavian A and subclavian V? anterior scalene M
What divides the subclavian into 3 parts? anterior scalene
Why is the hyoid important? maintains airway; widest part of airway is around the hyoid bone
What is Pierre Robin Sequence? jaw bone does not form during development so you can surgically take the mandible and move forward to elevate the hyoid bone to create a better airway; the tongue is back [glossoptosis] , cleft palate, can't breath
What is the 1st branchial arch from? Trigeminal N [sensation of the face] CN V
What is the 2nd branchial arch from? CN VII, facial nerve [motor and sensory]
What is the mylohyoid shaped like? diaphragm, and pelvis
Which of the 6 subtriangles does not have a right and left? submental
What does the anterior digastric get its nerve supply from? CN V, trigeminal
What does the posterior digastric get its nerve supply from? CN VII, facial N
What is another name for the submandibular tirangle? digastric triangle
What innervates the larynx? Recurrent laryngeal off the Vagus N
What does the carotid body sense? What is it? chemo receptor e.g. lack of O2, excess CO2, inc H+
What does the Carotid sinius sense? changes in blood pressure; baroreceptor
What is Carotid Sinus Syncope? temporary loss of consciousness or fainting caused by diminished cerebral blood flow; caused by hypersensitive carotid sinus
What is the order of brachial plexus distribution? roots, trunks, divsions, cords [randy travis drinks cold beer]
What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle? superior belly of the omohyoid M, sternocleidomastoid, posterior belly of the digastric M
What is in the Carotid triangle? carotid A and branches
What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle? Midline of neck, hyoid bone, superior belly of the opohyoid, sternocleidomastoid M
What are the contents of the muscular triangle? thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid
What are the boundaries of the Omoclavicular triangle? inferior belly of the omohoid, sternoclediomastoid, clavicle
What are thecontents of the omoclavicular tirangle? suprascapular A, External jugular V, subclavian A [3rd part]
What are the boundaries of the submandibular triangle? anterior belly of the digastric, posterio belly of the digastric, mandible
What are the contents of the submandibular triangle? And what's another name for it? digastric triangle; mylohyoid M, hypoglossus N,
What are the boundaries of the submental triangle? anterior belly of the digastric M, hyoid
What are the contents of the submental triangle? anterior jugular V, mylohyoid M
What are the boundaries of the occipital triangle? sternocleidomastoid M, omohyoid M, trapezius
What are the contents of the occipital triangle? accessory N, scalene MM, transverse cervical A, occipital A, hypoglossal N
What are the 6 subtirangles of the neck? submental, submandibular, occipital, muscular, carotid, omoclavicular
What is neurovascular compression syndrome? nerve compression of brachial plexus and subclavian vessels caused by abnormal insertion of the anterior and middle scacle MM or cervical rib; can correct by cutting rib or scalene
What is waiter's tip? damage to upper turnk of brachial plexus caused by a violent separation of the head from shoulder, arm is medially rotated and can not laterally rotate; it can be caused by stretching an infant's enck during delivery- birth palsy
What is torticoolis and another name for it? wryneck; spasmadic contraction or shortening of the neck MM causing a swistin gof the neck due to injury of the sternocleidomastoid or accessory N
What is Eagle Syndrome? elongation of the styloid process or excessive calcification of the styloid process; could compress the glossopharyngeal N or place pressure on the carotid AA; treat with styloidectomy
What root does the suboccipital N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C1, Motor, suboccipital region
What root does the Ansa Cervicales come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C1; motor, anterior neck MM
What root does the Greater Occipital N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C2; Sensory; semispinalis capitis; from dorsal root
What root does the Lesser Occipital N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C2; sensory; from ventral root; comes from the anterior of the neck around to the back; cutaneous ininervation
What root does the Great Auricular N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C2/C3; Sensory; Auricle and parotid region
What root does the Transverse Cervical N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C2/C3; Sensory; anterior and lateral parts of the neck
What root does the Third Occipital Nerve come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C3; skin of lower head; sensory
What root does the Supraclavicular N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C3/C4; Sensory; skin above and below clavicle; skin of pectoral, deltoid and outer trapezius
What root does the Phrenic N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C3, C4, C5 ; Motor and Sensory; diaphragm; mainly arises from C4; lays on anterior scalene
What root does the Dorsal Scapular N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C5; rhomboids and levator scapulae; motor
What root does the Subclavius N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C5; subclavius M; Motor
What root does the Suprascapular N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C5/C6; from superior trunk; supraspinous and infraspinous MM; Motor
What roots does the superior trunk come from? C5/C6
What roots does the Middle trunk come from? C7
What roots does the Inferior trunk come from? C8/T1
What root does the Long thoracic N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? C5/C6/C7; serratus anterior M; motor
What roots innervate the thyroid gland? C5 and T1
What root does the Posterior cord come from? What are it's branches? C5-T1; upper subscapular [subscapularis M]; thoracodorsal [latissimus dorsi] lower subscapular N [Subscapularis M]; Axillary N; Radial N
What roots does the lateral cord come from and what are its branches? C5-C7; Musculocutaneous, Lateral root of Median N; Lateral Pectoral N
What roots does the inferior cord come from and what are it's branches? C8/T1; Medial pectoral N; Medial cutaneous N of arm and forearm; Ulnar N; Median N
What root does the Right Recurrent Laryngeal N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? T1/T2; branch of Vegas; motor;
What root does the Left Recurrent Laryngeal N come from? Is it involved in Motor or Sensory? What does it innervate? T4/T5; branch of Vegas
CN 5 has divisions some are sensory and some are motor. What are they? Opthalamic N [Sensory]; Maxillary N [Sensory] Mandibular N [Sensory and Motor]
IF you damage the long thoracic N what is the symptom? waiter's tip hand
Musculocutaneous N is from which roots? C5/C6
Radial N is from which roots? C5/C6
Axillary n is from which roots? C5/C6
Medial Cutaneous N of the arm is from which roots? C8/T1
What symptoms would you have if you removed the parathyroid during athyroidectomy? tinglin gandnumbness in face and limbs as well as craps and spasms in hands
What is another name for the adam's apple? laryngeal prominence
Where is the thyroid gland located? C5-T1
Where is the hyoid located? C3
Where is the thyroid cartilage located? C4;
What kind of cartilage is thyroid cartilage? hyaline
Where is the cricoid cartilage located? C6
What divides the retropharngeal space? alar fascia
How might an infection of the neck spread to the posterior mediastinum? through the retropharyngeal space
What does the investing fascia enclose? sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
What does the prevertebral fascia fuse with inferiorly? anterior longitudinal ligament
What does the prevertebral fascia extend laterally as? axillary sheath
What does the carotid sheath not house? EXTERNAL carotid A and sympathetic trunk
What is a Pneumomediastinum? air in mediastinum from ruptured trachea, bronchus, esophagus; hear a grating or crackling sound [crepitance]
What does the Ansa Subclavius loop around? Subclavian A and connects middle and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia
What does the thyroid gland secrete? thyroxine and thyrocalcitonin [calcitonin]
What innervatres the thyroid gland? superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia
What controls the thryoid gland? pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone
What does thyroxine do? involved in rate of metabolism [T4]
What does calcitonin do? reduce calcium in blood; opposes parathyroid hormone
What controlls the parathyroid gland? pituitary and hypothalamus
What does parathyroid gland do? regulates Ca and phophorus
What results with removal fo parathyroid glands? tetany [involuntary contractions of MM] and death
What does thoe thoracic duct empty into , what does it drain and where is it located? L brachiocephalic at junciton of fsubclavianand IJV, drains entire bodye except R side of head an dneck, r upper limb, r thorax, L side
What is the other lymphatic duct besides the thoracic? right lymphatic duct
What is a goiter? Swelling in the thyroid gland leading to swelling of the neck; caused by iodine insufficiency; can treat with radioactive iodine or thyroidectomy
How many people have a pyramidal lobe? 50%
What are thyroglossal duct remnants called? thyroglossal cysts,
What is Grave's disease? hyperthryoidism is characterized by a goiter
What is Hashimoto's disease? hypothyroidism is characterized by a goiter
What is another name for a pyramidal lobe? accessory lobe
What is an ectopic thyroid? Find thyroid in the middle of the tongue; Generally underdeveloped thyroid; Hypothryoidism
What is exophthalmos? bulging of the eye
What is Barrett's esophagus? lower esophagus become damaged, usually from repeated exposure to stomach acid. damage causes changes to the color & composition of esophagus cells; causes dysphagia [difficulty swallowing]; silent until large & metastaic; poor prognosis
What is Horner's Syndrom? Tumor in apex of lung causin gcompression on the sympathetic trunk. Signs: Miosis [ pupilary constriction], Ptosis [drooping of eyelid], Anhidrosis [absense of sweating], Enopthalmos [sunken eye]
Difference between Bell's and Horner's? drooling; loss of taste and sensation on part of tongue; lack of lacrimation
What might you injure with thyroid surgery and what is the symptom? recurrent laryngeal injury; hoarsness
Which artery passes through the submandibular gland or is posterior? facial A
What N controls the intrinsic M of tongue? hypoglossal
What is a synctium? multinucleated; skeletal M
What is epimysium? surrounds muscle
What is perimysium? Ct separates MM into fascicles
What is endomysium? CT separates fascicles into fibers; highly vascularized
What causes the striations? organization of actin and myosin
Where are the nuclei in a muscle cell? below the sarcolemma
What continues as a tendon at the end of the M? endomysium and perimysium [dense regular connective tissue]
What is released in the synaptic clef and causes depolarization? acetylcholine
How many nuclei does a cardiac cellhave? 1
What are eintercalated disks? special junctional complexes that have gap junctions and macula adherens [desmosomes]; no tight junctions; this helps synchronized contraction of cardiac tissue
What is in a sarcoplasmic cone? mitochondria and glycogen
How do smooth M cells communicate? gap junctions
What has no blood, makes the fetal skeleton , and is made of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix? cartilage
What is hyaline cartilage made of? type II collagen, GAGS, proteoglycans
What is elastic cartilage made of? elastic fibers' and Type II collagen
What is fibrocartilage made of? type I and II collagen
Where are chondrocytes located? potential spaces called lacunae
What is territorial matrix? matrix immediately surrounding lacunae
What is interterritorial matrix? matrix between groups of chondrocytes
What is perichondrium? dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage
What are isogenous groups? cells that have recently divided
Which cartilage is a homogenous matrix? hyaline cartilage
Name some types of hyaline cartilage. cricoid and thyroid cartilage, articular cartilage, fetal skeleton, epiphyseal paltes
Name some types of elastic crrtilage? external ear, auditory meatus, eustachian tube, epiglotitis
What is fibrocartilage? combination of hyaline cartilage and dense regular CT; you can see Type I collagen bundles; isogenous groups; there is no perichondirum
Where is fibrocartilage found? menisci, intervertebral disks, articular disks,
What is bone tissue? specialized CT with a mineralized extracellular matrix
What is bone tissue made of? Type I collagen [90%] and ground substance [10%]
What is deposited on the extracellular matrix? hydroxyapatie crystals
What are anastomosing spicule of bone tissue called and where is it found? And what is in them? trabeculae; spongy bone. Bone marrow and blood vessels. Found primarily at the ends of long bones and in the center of flat and irregular bones
Where is compact bone found? dense layer on outside of bone
What are the units of mature boen called? osteons are cylindrical units. They replace woven bone which was deposited rapidly
What are osteoblasts formed from? mesenchymal cells
When do ostebolasts turn into osteocytes? when they beocme incased in the matrix that they secrete. The cell is now sensecent and will reside in a lacuna
What controls the osteoclasts? parathyroid hormone. They are large multinucleated phagocytes formed by the fusion of monocytic cells
What is another name for an osteon? haversion system
What is lacunae? empty space which has a canal with blood vessels and stuff in it
What are interstitial almellae? remnants of previous concentric lamellae
What are inner circumferential lamellae? deposited by endosteum, more interior
Qwhat are outer circumferential lamellae? deposited by periosteum, outside
What are canaliculi? channels that connect osteocytes via gap junctions
What are volkmann's canals? conenct blood vessels of adjacent haversian canals
Wshat are osteoprogenitor cells? stem cells of periosteum and marrow cavity
What are bone lining cells? quiescent [inactive] osteoblasts of the endosteum and periostuem
What can osteoprogenitor cells form ? osteoblasts or osteoclasts
What shape are osteoblasts? And what is pH? c uboidal or polygonal; basophilic
What do osteoblasts do? synthesize osteoid [unmiuneralized bone matrix] and mineralize osteoid
What can osteocytes do? they hav ea livmited ability to produce and resorb bone
What do osteoprogenitor cells come from? mesenchymal stem cells; they are located in the periosteum and early endosteum
What are bone lining cells? quiescent osteoblasts; simple squamous cells on bone surface; connected via gap junctions
What is howshi's lacunae? shallow indentation caused by the degradation of bone by osteoclasts
What is the environment like around an osteoclast? acidic environment which demineralizes osteoid and provides optimal activity of acid hydrolases
What is intramembranous ossification? bone formed directly by condensation of mesenchymal cells; e.g. flat bones of skull, clavicle, mandible
What is endochondral ossification? bone formed from cartilage model, axial skeleton and bones fo extremeties
Describe the order of endochondral ossification. cartilage model; periosteal bone collar [dense layer outside; chondrocytes hypertroph-->Type II collagen; Cartilage matrix calcifies & chondrocytes degernate; blood vessels invade by osteoprogenitor & hemnopoietic cells; bone matrix-->calcified cartilage
Describe how an epiphyseal plate is formed. there are 2 centers of ossification and the plate forms between. chondrocyte proliferation ceases and epiphyseal closes after maximal grow is achieved
Wher is the primary center of ossification? shaft
Where is the secondary center of ossification and when does it start? heads; shortly after birth
Wshat is the epiphyseal plate? responsible for longitudinal growth of bones
Where is the artiuclar cartilage? on the ends
Created by: TJACKS11