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Massage anatomy pt 2

Tissue and Fascia

Definition of tissue an organization of cells into layers or groups, similar in size shape and arrangement and function.
4 types? epithelial tissue, connective, muscle, nerve
Characteristics of Epithelial tissue? Covering, lining and glands, widespread, cover all body surfaces inside and out, the major tissues of glands. Have a basement membrane; underside, anchors tissue, thin nonliving layer. Lack blood vessels, reproduce readily and rapidly, tightly packed
Definition of Avascular Lack of blood vessels
Functions of Epithelial tissue Provide effective and protective barriers, secretion because of the glands, absorption and excretion
classifications of Epithelial tissue? Simple- single layers of cells Stratified- many layers of cells Squamous- thin, flattened cells Cuboid- cubelike cells Columnar- elongated cells
Simple Squamous Epithelial tissue single thin layer easy for diffusion and filtration, line air sacs of lungs, forms walls of capillaries, lines the inside of blood and lymph vessels, covers membranes that line body cavities.
Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue single layer of cube shaped cells, covers ovaries, kidney tubules-ducts of various glands, eg salivary, pancreas and liver. Facilitate secretion and absorption. In glands- secretion of glandular products.
Simple columnar epithelial tissue elongated tissue thick for protection, occurs in linings of uterus and digestive tract. secretion of digestive fluids and absorption of nutrients from digestion.
Psuedostratified columnar epithelial tissue appear to be stratified but they are not. commonly posses cilia. goblet cells secrete mucous, which is then moved by the cilia. They line respiratory and reproductive organs.
stratifies squamous epithelial tissue epidermis and inside of mouth. many layers of cells thick, flattened surface cells, forms epidermis, keratin- protein accumulated by older cells which eventually die form a dry protective cover which seals h20. lines mouth throat, vagina, anal canal.
Transitional epithelium uro-epithelium specialized to undergo changes in tension. urinary bladder, and urinary system distensible forms lining and barrier,
Glandular epithelium cells specialized to manufacture and secrete various substances into ducts or body fluids
gland one or more cells of glandular epithelium two types- Endocrine and exocrine
Endocrine glands and Exocrine glands secrete hormones into tissue fluid or blood, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, parathyrioid, pancreas, thymus, testes and ovaries Exocrine are those that secrete products into ducts that open into some internal or external surface.
Merocrine glands- type of exocrine gland Merocrine glands- cells secrete fluid no cytoplasm is lost so cell stay intact. Two types- Serous- watery high concentration of enzymes(digestion) and Mucous cells- secrete thick mucous high in mucin-glycoprotein(digestive and respiratory tubes)
Apocrine glands- type of exocrine gland lose small portions of glandular cell bodies- mammary glands, some sweat glands
holocrine glands- type of exocrine gland release entire cells filled with secretory products- sebaceous glands of the skin.
Goblet Cell mucous secreting epithelial tissue cell
Connective tissue Functions 1. Bind structures together 2. Provide support and protection 3. Serve as frameworks 4. Fill spaces 5. Store fat 6. Manufactures blood cells 7. Provide protection against infections 8. help to repair tissue damage.
Osteocytes Bone Cells
Connective tissue characteristics cells further apart than epithelium with an abundance of intercellular material called MATRIX. Matrix consists of fibers( protein) and ground substance-varies from fluid to semisolid-solid are able to reproduce have good blood supplies, ridgid or flexible
Major cells in Connective tissue. Fibroblast most common kind of cell in connective tissue Large and star shaped Function is to produce fiber of proteins in matrix
Major cells in connective tissue. Macrophages histiocytes. Plentiful, can move about, carry on phagocytosis, scavenger cells clear foreign particles- for defense and immunity
Major cells in connective tissue, Mast Cells near blood vessels, contain heparin- prevents blood clotting- contains histamine- promotes inflammatory reaction in response to tissue damage.
3 types of connective tissue fibers produced by fibroblasts. Collagenous fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers
Collagenous fibers thick threadlike strong, slightly elastic, made of collage. the bodys major structural protein. Fibers are grouped in bundles Flexible, tensile strength to hold structures together. In dense form- White fibers Also contained in loose connective tiss
Elastic fibers microfibrils embedded in elastin(protein) branched networks, less strength, very elastic- stretches, deforms and reforms yellow fibers found in lungs and skin
Reticular fibers found in filter locations because they are delicate such as spleen and lymph nodes. very thin fibers composed of collagen, highly branched, delicate supporting network.
types of Connective tissue Loose connective tissue, Adipose tissue, Fibrous Connective tissue, Elastic connective tissue, Reticular connective tissue, Cartilage, bone, blood, reticuloendothelial tissue.
Loose connective tissue delicate thin membranes (areolar) mainly fibroblasts, contains collagenous and elastic fibers function is it binds skin to underlying organs, fills spaces between muscle and lies beneath epithelial cells, blood vessels and provide nourishment to the skin
Adipose tissue aka loose tissue.adiposcytes store fat in droplets within cytoplasm,locations- beneath the skin,btwn muscles,around kidneys,behind eyeballs,abdominal membrane,heart&joints. functions- protective cushion for joints and organs,heat insulator, stores energy.
Fibrous connective tissue aka dense tissue. closely packed thick collagen and a network of elastic fibers. contains fell cells- all fibroblasts very strong withstand pull forces. IN tendons ligaments, white layer of eye, deeper portions of skin, has poor blood supply
Elastic connective tissue yellow elastic fibers arranged in parallel branching network, collagenous fibers between fibroblasts, attaching between adjacent vertebrae, within large arteries, the heart, airways, imparts elastic quality to these structures, structure of trachia
Reticular connective tissue thin collagenous fibers arranged in 3 dimensional network supporting tissue in walls of certain internal organs, liver spleen lymphatic organs
Cartilage ridgid connective tissue, function- supports parts provides frameworks and attachments protects underlying tissues, forms structural models for developing bones.
3 types of cartilage hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage.
Hyaline cartilage protects bones from grinding against eachother.
Fibrocartilage intervertebrael disks, knees, pelvic girdle, pubic symphysis
Bones most ridgid connective tissue, mineral salts, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate in matrix functions as internal support for body structures, protection, attachment for muscles, contains red marrow(manufactures blood) and stores inorganic salts
Blood cells suspended in fluid matrix- blood plasma types of cells. red, platelets and white
Reticulendothelial tissue throughout body cells are phagocytic which ingest and destroy foreign particles. macrophages are most common.
Muscle tissue Made to contract. 1) skeletal- striated voluntary 2) smooth- nonstriated- irregular- involuntary 3) cardiac- only in heart, some straiated and smooth, involuntary
Nerve tissue neurons and nerve cells contained. coordinate and regulate the body functions by conducting impulses. contains neuroglial cells "nerve-glue" to support and bind nerve tissue, carru phagocytosis and supply nutrients to neurons
3 layers of Fascia Superficial, Deep and Subserous
Superficial fascia subcutaneous layer of fascia connecting skin to underlying structures. often connected with adipose tissues
deep fascia Portion of fascia which surrounds and penetrates the muscles and fibers.
Endomysium Thin, delicate layer surrounding each individual fiber
Perimysium Layer of fascia which surrounds fascicles bundles of fibers
Epimysium layer of fascia which surrounds the entire muscle
Subserous fascia forms ct layer of the serous membranes covering organs in various body cavities and linings of these cavities
Thixotropy property of certain gels to become fluid when heat and pressure is applied
5 signs of inflammation Redness, heat, pain, swelling and dysfunction
Created by: sevenxchick



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