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Massage anatomy pt 1

Body organization and terminology

QuestionAnswer
Definition of anatomy? The science of structure of the human body
Definition of physiology? The science of function of the human body.
Metabolism? Physical and chemical changes in the body to allow it to perform activities and processes.
What are the levels of organization? Atoms- molecules- organelles- cells- tissues- organs- organ systems- organism.
what are the 4 types of tissue? Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve tissue
What is epithelial tissue? For Covering,lining, and glands. Protects a body and produces secretions.
What is connective tissue? Joins and supports body structures, such as bones, cartilage, fat and blood.
what is muscle tissue? tissue that contracts and relaxes, enabling organs and limbs to function. 3 types are skeletal, smooth and cardiac.
What is nerve tissue? tissue that activates and integrates the body and its parts.
Definition of Homeostasis? the maintenance of a stable internal environment.
Negative feed back? any shift or change from the normal state stimulates changes to occur in the opposite direction and back towards homeostasis.
Positive feedback? any shift or change from the normal state stimulates further change in the same direction away from homeostasis. Life threatening.
What is the integumentary system? the skin and associated accessories, providing protection and maintenance of homeostasis.
What is the skeletal system? the bones, ligaments, and cartilage providing protection, support, storage of salts, production of red blood cells, and allowance for movement.
What is the Muscular system? the skeletal muscles and tendons providing protection, locomotion, movement of fluids and generation of heat.
What is the nervous system? the brain, spinal cord, and nerves providing control and coordination of body parts.
What is the endocrine system? Glands that secrete hormones and their target tissues, providing integration of activities of various structures through facilitation or inhibition of organ function.
What is the circulatory system? the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and blood, providing transport of nutrients to body parts and removal of wastes from body parts.
What is the Urinary system? the kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra, providing elimination of wastes from blood in a fluid system.
What is the respiratory system? the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs, providing the intake and absorption of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide and excess water.
What is the digestive system? the mouth, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas, providing for the intake and preparation of foods into a usable form and the assimilation of the nutrients therein.
What is the lymphatic system? the lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen and lymph fluid, providing for the protection from disease via immunity, returns fluid to the blood stream and transports fats from digestion to the circulatory system.
What is the reproductive system? Sexual organs and associated structures providing for production of new organisms.
Components of a cell membrane Outermost limit of a cell, thin and flexible, is a phospholipid bilayer. maintains wholeness of cell and controls passage of substance in and out of cell.
Definition of Diffusion random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward a region of lower concentration. I.E. red food coloring.
Definition of Osmosis diffusion of water molecules through a permeable membrane from a higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Definition of Filtration a process by which molecules are forced through membranes due to hydrostatc pressure. IE tissue fluid formation.
Definition of Active transport a process by which a protein carrier molecule transports a substance from an area of lower concentration to a higher concentration.
Definition of Phagocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solid substances.
Passive and active processes Passive occurs due to differences in temperature and pressure and concentration, such as diffusion, filtration and osmosis. Active requires energy- ATP, such as endocytosis (large engulfing) phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking)
What is consisted in the Dorsal cavity? the Cranial cavity- the brain and spinal cavity- spinal cord and vertebrae.
What is comprised of the Ventral cavity? The thoracic cavity and abdomino- pelvic cavity
What is in the Thoracic cavity? Lungs- Pleural cavity Mediastinum- heart, esophagus thymus and trachea
What is in the abdomino-pelvic cavity? Abdominal cavity- stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small intestine, some of the large intestines and kidneys. The Pelvic cavity- large intestines in part, rectum, bladder, and reproductive organs.
What are the head cavities? Oral-mouth Nasal- Nose Orbital- eyes Aural- ears
What are the three body planes? Sagittal- divides left from right, mid sagittal refers to the midline. Transverse- divides top from bottom. Frontal- divides front from back. Center frontal is termed "Coronal"
Superior and inferior- Reference to the trunk Superior(cephalic, cranial) upper or towards the head. Inferior (Caudal)- lower or away from head.
Anterior and Posterior Anterior (ventral)- towards the front Posterior (dorsal)- towards the back.
Medial and lateral Medial- towards the midline Lateral- away from the midline, away from the medial plane.
Ipsilateral and contralateral Ipsilateral- concerns the same side of the body Contralateral- concerns the opposite side of the body
Proximal and distal- Reference to extremities Proximal- position on a limb being closest to the point of attachment on the body. Distal- position on a limb furthest from the point of attachment on the body.
superficial and Deep Superficial is on or near the surface Deep is distant from the surface.
What are the three stages to the General adaptation Syndrome? Stage 1- Alarm stage, the body's response to stress ins the same physiologically as we adapt to stress. Fight or flight. Stage 2)Stage of resistance, prolonged exposure to stress the body is not in homeostasis which leads to eventual breakdown stage 3
Fight or flight Alarm reaction is the body's initial response to stress or a stressor. Heart rate increases, blood vessels constrict, digestion decreases, sweat produces, respiratory increases, sympathetic impulses increase epinephrine.
Acromial top of the shoulder
Antecubital anterior portion of elbow
Appendicular limbs of the body
Axial head and trunk
axillary armpit
brachial upper arm
carpal wrist
celiac abdomin
cephalic head
cervical neck
costal ribs
cubital elbow
digital fingers
dorsal back
gluteal butt
inguinal groin
lumbar low back
occipital neck and head
palmar palm of hand
pectoral pecs of chest
pelvic pelvis
plantar sole of feet
popliteal area behind knee
sacral sacrum
sternal sternum
vertebral vertebrae/ spine
tarsal Ankle
Created by: sevenxchick