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Ch 8 All the Rest

Ch 8 Pathology, Diagnostic & Therapeutic Procedures, Pharmacology, Abbreviations

Aphthous ulcers painful ulcers in the mouth of unknown cause. Commonly called canker sores.
Cleft lip Congenital anomaly in which the upper lip and jaw bone fail to fuse in the midline leaving an open gap. Often seen along with a cleft palate. Corrected with surgery.
Cleft palate Congenital anomaly in which the roof of the mouth has a split or fissure. Corrected with surgery.
Herpes labialis Infection of the lip by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Also called fever blister or cold sore.
Periodontal disease Disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bones; most common cause of tooth loss.
Esophageal varices Enlarged and swollen varicose veins in the lower end of the esophagus. If these rupture, serious hemorrhage results; often related to liver disease.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Acid from the stomach flows backward up into the esophagus causing inflammation and pain.
Gastric carcinoma Cancerous tumor in the stomach
Hiatal hernia Protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm (also called a diaphragmatocele) and extending into the thoracic cavity; gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common symptom.
Peptic ulcer disease Ulcer in lower portion of esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum;thought to be caused by acid of gastric juices.Damage to lining of stomach may be caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).A perforated ulcer (all the way through stomach wall) needs surgery.
Anal fistula Abnormal tube like passage from the surface around the anal opening directly into the rectum.
Colorectal carcinoma Cancerous tumor along the length of the colon and rectum.
Crohn’s disease Form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting primarily the ileum and/or colon. Also called regional ileitis. This autoimmune condition affects all the layers of the bowel wall and results in scarring and thickening of the gut wall.
Diverticulitis Inflammation of the diverticulum (an outpouching off the gut), especially in the colon. Inflammation often results when food becomes trapped within the pouch.
Diverticulosis Condition of having diverticula (outpouches off the gut). May lead to diverticulitis if one becomes inflamed.
Dysentery Disease characterized by diarrhea, often with mucus and blood, severe abdominal pain, fever, and dehydration. Caused by ingesting food or water contaminated by chemicals, bacteria, protozoans, or parasites.
Hemorrhoids Varicose veins in the rectum.
Ileus Severe abdominal pain, inability to pass stool, vomiting, and abdominal distension as a result of an intestinal blockage. May require surgery to reverse the blockage.
Inguinal hernia Hernia/protrusion of a loop of small intestines into the inguinal region through a weak spot in the abdominal muscle wall that develops into a hole. May become strangulated if muscle tightens down around the loop of intestines & cuts off blood flow.
Intussusception Result of the intestine slipping or telescoping into another section of intestine just below it. More common in children.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Disturbance in the functions of the intestine from unknown causes. Symptoms generally include abdominal discomfort and an alteration in bowel activity. Also called spastic colon or functional bowel syndrome.
Polyposis Small tumors that contain a pedicle or stemlike attachment in the mucous membranes of the large intestine (colon); may be precancerous.
Ulcerative colitis Chronis inflammatory condition that produces numerous ulcers to form on the mucous membrane lining of the colon; the cause is unknown. Also, known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Volvulus Condition in which the bowel twists upon itself and causes an obstruction. Painful and requires immediate surgery.
Cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder; most commonly caused by gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct that block the flow of bile.
Cholelithiasis Presence of gallstones; may or may not cause symptoms such as cholecystalgia
Cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver associated with failure of the liver to function properly.
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, usually due to a viral infection. Different viruses are transmitted by different routes, such as sexual contact or from exposure to blood or fecally contaminated water or food.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) Enzyme normally present in the blood. Blood levels are increased in persons with liver disease.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) normally present in the blood. Blood levels are increased in persons with liver disease.
Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) Laboratory test on the feces to determine if microscopic amounts of blood are present. Also called hemoccult or stool guaiac.
Ova and parasites (O&P) Laboratory examination of feces with a microscope for the presence of parasites or their eggs.
Serum bilirubin Blood test to determine the amount of the waste product bilirubin in the bloodstream. Elevated levels indicate liver disease.
Stool culture Laboratory test of feces to determine if any pathogenic bacteria are present.
Bite wing x-ray X-ray taken with a part of the film holder held between the teeth and parallel to the teeth.
Intravenous cholecystography Dye is administered intravenously to the patient, which allows for the x-ray visualization of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
Lower gastrointestinal series X-ray image of the colon and rectum is taken after the administration of barium (a radiopaque dye) by enema. Also called a barium enema.
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) Procedure in which contrast medium is injected directly into the liver to visualize the bile ducts. Used to detect obstructions.
Upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) Administering of a barium contrast material orally and then taking an x-ray to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Also called a barium swallow.
Colonoscopy Flexible fiberscope called a colonoscope is passed through the anus, rectum, and colon; used to examine the upper portion of the colon. Polyps and small growths can be removed during this procedure.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Procedure using an endoscope to visually examine the hepatic duct, common duct, & pancreatic duct. The endoscope is inserted through the anus & worked backwards to the area where pancreatic & common bile ducts empty into the duodenum.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Use of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope to visually examine the esophagus, stomach, and the beginning of the duodenum.
Gastroscopy Procedure in which a flexible gastroscope is passed through the mouth and down the esophagus in order to visualize inside the stomach. Used to diagnose peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma.
Laparoscopy Laparoscope is passed into the abdominal wall through a small incision. The abdominal cavity is then visually examined for tumors and other conditions with this lighted instrument. Also called peritoneoscopy.
Sigmoidoscopy Procedure using a flexible sigmoidoscope to visually examine the sigmoid colon. Commonly done to diagnose cancer and polyps.
Paracentesis Insertion of a needle into the abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid. Tests to diagnose diseases may be conducted on the fluid.
Extraction Removing or “pulling” teeth.
Root canal Dental treatment involving the pulp cavity of the root of the tooth. Procedure is used to save a tooth that is badly infected or abscessed.
Gavage Using a nasogastric (NG) tube to place liquid nourishment directly into the stomach.
Lavage Using a nasogastric (NG) tube to wash out the stomach. For example, after ingestion of dangerous substances.
Nasogastric intubation (NG tube) Flexible catheter is inserted into the nose and down the esophagus to the stomach. May be used for feeding or to suction out stomach fluids.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Providing 100% of a patient’s nutrition intravenously. Used when a patient is unable to eat.
Anastomosis To surgically create a connection between two organs or vessels. For example, joining together two cut ends of the intestines after a section is removed.
Bariatric surgery A group of surgical procedures such as stomach stapling and restrictive banding to reduce the size of the stomach. A treatment for morbid (extreme) obesity.
Choledocholithotripsy Crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct.
Colostomy Surgical creation of an opening of some portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to the outside surface. Fecal material (stool) drains into a bag worn on the abdomen.
Diverticulectomy Surgical removal of a diverticulum.
Exploratory laparotomy Abdominal operation for the purpose of examining the abdominal organs and tissues for signs of disease or other abnormalities.
Fistulectomy Removal of a fistula
Gastric stapling Procedure that closes off a large section of the stomach with rows of staples. Results in a much smaller stomach to assist very obese patients to lose weight.
Hemorrhoidectomy Surgical removal of hemorrhoids from the anorectal area.
Hernioplasty Surgical repair of a hernia. Also called herniorrhaphy.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder through a very small abdominal incision with the assistance of a laparoscope.
Liver transplant Transplant of a liver from a donor.
Anorexiant Treats obesity by suppressing appetite.
Antacid Used to neutralize stomach acids.
Antidiarrheal Used to control diarrhea.
Antiemetic Treats nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness.
Emetic Induces vomiting.
H2-receptor antagonist Used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. When stimulated, H2-receptors increase the production of stomach acid. Using an antagonist to block these receptors results in a low acid level in the stomach.
Laxative Treats constipation by stimulating a bowel movement.
Proton pump inhibitors Used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Blocks the stomach’s ability to secrete acid.
ac before meals
ALT alanine transaminase
AST aspartate transaminase
ba barium
BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
BS bowels sounds
CBD common bile duct
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
FOBT fecal occult blood test
GB gallbladder
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
HAV hepatitis A virus
HBV hepatitis B virus
HCI hydrochloric acid
HCV hepatitis C virus
HDV hepatitis D virus
HEV hepatitis E virus
HSV-1 herpes simplex virus type 1
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
IVC intravenous cholangiography
NG nasogastric (tube)
NPO nothing by mouth
n&v nausea and vomiting
O&P ova and parasites
pc after meals
PO by mouth
pp postprandial
PTC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PUD peptic ulcer disease
TPN total parenteral nutrition
UGI upper gastrointestinal series
Created by: AltheaMathews