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A and P Blood

Herlihy-Chapter 15

QuestionAnswer
hematology, hematuria, hematocrit, and hemostasis all refer to blood
hemopoiesis, erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis all refer to blood cell formation
to what does the common word part refere--phlebothrombosis, thrombus, thrombocyte, and thrombolytic blood clot
to what does leukocytosis and leukopenia refer amounts of white blood cells
the words uremia, hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and bacteremia all refer to substances in the blood
albumin is plasma proteing that helps regulate plasma osmotic pressure, thereby "holding" water within the blood vessels; responsible for oncotic pressure
Anemia is a condition characterized by abnormally low amounts of hemoglobin or low numbers of red blood cells
Basophils type of granular leukocyte; stains blue
Coagulation clotting of blood
Eosinophil type of granular leukocyte; stains red
Erythrocytes red blood cell
Erythropoietin hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
Fibrin protein strands formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen; the clot
Hematocrit-(packed cell volume) laboratory test that expresses the percentage of red blood cells present in a volume of blood
Hemopoiesis- production of blood cells
hemoglobin iron containing protein in the red blood cell can take up and release oxygen; also transports carbon dioxide
hemolysis breakdown of erythrocytes
hemostasis the stopping of blood loss
leukocytes white blood cell; functions primarily to defend the body against infection
lymphocytes agranular leukocyte; there are T and B lymphocytes
monocytes agranualar phagocytic leukocyte that can become a macrophage
neutrophil granular, motile, and highly phagocytic leukocyte
plasma the yellow liquid portion of blood
platelet a fragment of megakaryocyte that functions in hemostasis; also called a thrombocyte
red blood cells blood cell that contains mostly hemoglobin; an erythrocyte
reticulocyte immature red blood cell
serum blood plasma minus the clotting factor
thrombocytes aka platelets; a fragment of a megakaryocyte that functions in hemostasis
white blood cells aka leukocyte-functions primarily to defend the body against infection
differential white blood cell count a lab test that indicates the percentage of each type of white blood cells
intrinsic factor protein secreted by the stomach that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
hematology the study of blood
viscosity the thickness or stickiness of the blood and affects the ease with which blood flows through the blood vessels
myeloid hemopoiesis blood formation in the red bone marrow
lymphoid hemopoiesis blood formation in the lymphatic organs
stem cell cell in which blood cells originate from
myelosuppression bone marrow depression
leukopenia a deficiency of wbc caused by myelosuppression
thrombocytopenia condition resulting from depressed bone marrow which produces inadequate numbers of platelets
phlebotomy process of removal of blood
erythropoiesis the production of rbc
anisocytosis unequal sized rbc
poikilocytosis irregualarly shaped rbc
oxyhemoglobin oxygenated hemoglobin
carbaminohemoglobin CO2 hemoglobin complex
cyanosis blue coloration
hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood
iron deficiency anemia inadequate hemoglobin synthesis resulting from an iron deficient diet
folic acid deficiency anemia inadequate hemoglobin synthesis resulting from a deficiency of folic acid
pernicious anemia a form of anemia that results from the failure to absorb vitamin B12 due to inadequate secretion of intrinsic factor
anemia of chronic renal (kidney)failure type of anemia resulting from declining kidney function from failure to produce enough erythropoietin
hemolytic anemia a condition resulting when the rbc's are broken down very rapidly and exceed the rate of rbc replacement
jaundice a yellow hue to the skin and eyes caused by an increase in bilirubin level in the blood
phagocytosis eating of pathogens or cellular debris
leukocytosis increase in the numbers of wbc's
leucopoiesis process of wbc prodution
granulocytes granules
agranulocytes no granules
pus a collection of dead neutrophils, parts of cells, and fluids that are left behind at the site of infection after the battle between the neutrophils and pathogens
abscess localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of a pyogenic bacterium or other pathogen
polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMS's, polys, polymorphs-------neutrophils
segs another name for mature neutrophils
band cell/staff cells/stab cells the immature neutrophils
lymphocytes produced in the red bone marrow and play an important role in the body's immune response
monocytes type of agranulocyte that is phagocytotic
macrophagees enlarged monocyte that eats foreign material; big eater
wandering macrophage macrophages that wander about the body, patrolling for pathogens and cleaning up the debris
fixed macrophages macrophages that reside in a particular organ that phagocytose pathogens
Thrombopoiesis the production of the platelet
Petechiae little pin-point hemorrhages under the skin, and abnormal, potentially lethal bleeding episodes
Complete blood count (CBC) a lab test that provides the normal range of the numbers of RBC’s, WBC’s, and platelets (the normal hemoglobin/hgb content of the RBC, the normal hct/hematocrit, and the percentage of reticulocytes, on WBC’s the test indicates the % of each type of WBC)
Complete blood count (CBC) a lab test that provides the normal range of the numbers of RBC’s, WBC’s, and platelets (the normal hemoglobin/hgb content of the RBC, the normal hct/hematocrit, and the percentage of reticulocytes, on WBC’s the test indicates the % of each type of WBC)
Vascular spasm when the blood vessel is injured and the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall responds by contracting
Vascular spasm when the blood vessel is injured and the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall responds by contracting
Prothrombin activator (PTA) any one of the substances in the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of coagulation
Platelet plug the plug formed when the platelets become sticky and adhere to the inner lining of the injured blood vessel and to each other
Prothrombin A protein present in blood plasma that is converted into active thrombin during coagulation
Thrombin an enzyme that is present in the blood. It causes our blood to clot it we suffer an injury like a cut
Prothrombin activator (PTA) any one of the substances in the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of coagulation
Fibrinogen A soluble protein present in blood plasma, from which fibrin is produced by the action of the enzyme thrombin
Prothrombin A protein present in blood plasma that is converted into active thrombin during coagulation
Thrombin an enzyme that is present in the blood. It causes our blood to clot it we suffer an injury like a cut
Fibrinogen A soluble protein present in blood plasma, from which fibrin is produced by the action of the enzyme thrombin
Heparin A compound in the liver and other tissues that inhibits blood coagulation
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a condition in which a clot in the deep veins of the legs gives rises to an embolus that travels to the vessels of the lungs where it blocks blood flow often causing instant death
Mast cells basophils that are concentrated in and around the liver and lungs
Hypoprothrombineamia a diminished amount of prothrombin in the blood
Thrombus a blood clot
Clot retraction the process of the clot becoming smaller as water is squeezed out
Embolus a traveling blood clot
Fibrinolysis the process of the dissolving of a clot
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a condition in which a clot in the deep veins of the legs gives rises to an embolus that travels to the vessels of the lungs where it blocks blood flow often causing instant death
Plasmin substance that dissolves clots
Hypoprothrombineamia a diminished amount of prothrombin in the blood
Plasminogen The inactive precursor of the enzyme plasmin, present in blood
Clot retraction the process of the clot becoming smaller as water is squeezed out
Fibrinolysis the process of the dissolving of a clot
Plasmin substance that dissolves clots
Plasminogen The inactive precursor of the enzyme plasmin, present in blood
Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots (utilized in stroke victims)
ABO grouping group of four blood types (A, B, AB, and O)
Hemolytic blood transfusion reactions
Antibodies A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen
Universal donor a blood donor that can donate to all blood types
Agglutination the clumping of the antigen-antibody interaction
Universal recipient a blood recipient that may receive all blood type donations
Compatible blood groups blood groups that can donate to each other with no ill consequences
Incompatible blood groups blood groups that cannot donate to each other due to ill consequences from the mixing of the blood groups
Erythroblastosis fetalis is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta
Universal donor a blood donor that can donate to all blood types
Erythroblastosis fetalis antibodies are some which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation; the red cells are broken down and the fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia
Universal recipient a blood recipient that may receive all blood type donations
Erythroblastosis fetalis This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur.
Erythroblastosis fetalis- Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis,
Erythroblastosis fetalis When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts are present in the fetal blood
Erythroblastosis fetalis is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta
Erythroblastosis fetalis antibodies are some which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation; the red cells are broken down and the fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia
Erythroblastosis fetalis This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur.
Erythroblastosis fetalis When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts are present in the fetal blood
The composition of plasma is a pale yellow fluid composed mostly of water. The plasma also contains proteins (albumin, various clotting factors, antibodies, and complement proteins), ions, nutrients, gases, and waste.
The functions of blood plasma are to help regulate fluid volume, protect the body from pathogens, and prevent excessive blood loss in the event of injury.
What are the two hemopoietic tissues red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue (found in the spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland)
Where is the red bone marrow found in the ends of long bones, such as the femur, and in flat and irregular bones, such as the sternum, cranial bones, vertebrae, and the bones of the pelvis
What cells are made in the red bone marrow rbc's, white rbc's (granulocytes-basophil, neutrophil, and eosinophil) and (agranulocytes-lymphocyte and monocyte) and Platelets
What are types of granulocytes basophil, neutrophil, and eosinophil
What are types of agranulocytes lymphocyte and monocyte
What blood cells are made in the lymphatic tissue Some lymphocytes mature and reproduce in the lymphatic tissue
What are the rbc's function primary transporter of oxygen and carbon dioxide
what protein is in rbc's hemoglobin
what protein is responsible for rbc function the hemoglobin molecule
how many globin chains does the hemoglobin contain four
what does hemoglobin consist of globin and heme
what is the function of the globin protein plays a role in gas transport and transports some of the CO2 from its site of production to the lungs for excretion
what is the function of heme O2 attaches loosely to the iron atom in the heme
what are the nutrients necessary for rbc production iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and protein
what does hypoxia do in relation to rbc production causes a decrease in oxygen which in turn causes the kidneys to sense the need for additional oxygen and secrete erythropoietin which then stimulates the bone marrow to produce additional rbc's
what does erythropoietin do stimulates the bone marrow to produce additional rbc's
what is the life span of a rbc 120 days
what happens to rbc's at the end of their life span they are removed when the ragged rbc is detected by the macrophages (that line the spleen and liver) who remove the rbc's from the circulation and phagocytose them
what is hemoglobin broken down into globin and heme
what is the globin broken down into various amino acids that are later used in the synthesis of other proteins
what is the heme broken down into iron and bile pigments
where is the iron stored in the liver until it is needed by the bone marrow for the synthesis of new hemoglobin
what is a function of the liver to remove bile pigments from the blood and excrete it them into the bile
where does the bile flow into the intestines and then it is excreted from the body in the feces
what are the four types of blood A, B, AB, and O
whate are platelets tiny cell fragments of the larger megakaryocyte
where are platelets produced in the red bone marrow
what is the life span of a platelet 5 to 9 days
how are platelets involved in hemostasis by preventing blood loss via clotting
what happens with a baby when the mother is Rh negative they may be born with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
what type of blood can the Rh- person not receive Rh+
what is the first stage of chemical blood clotting injury to the blood vessel wall that activates various clotting factors that in turn produce prothrombin activator (PTA)
what is the second stage of chemical blood clotting in the presence of calcium, platelet chemicals, and PTA, prothrombin is activated to form thrombin
what is the third stage of chemical blood clotting thrombin activates fibrinogen, which forms the fibin fibers (net) which in turn traps other blood cells and particles to form the clot
how is abnormal clotting prevented in the vascular system the inner lining of the blood vessel (endothelium) is smooth and shiny and allows blood to flow easily along its surface
how is abnormal clotting prevented in the vascular system heparin is secreted by mast cells that are concentrated in and around the liver and lungs
what is heparin secreted by mast cells
what is the function of heparin to act as an anticoagulant by removing thrombin from the clotting process
what are the normal values of rbc's for a CBC Male 4.5 to 6.0 million cells/mm Female 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/mm
what are the normal values of wbc's for a CBC 5,000 TO 10,000 cells/mm
whate are the normal values of hemoglobin for a CBC Male 13.5 to 17.5 g/mL Female 12 to 16 g/mL
what is the fraction of the blood composted of rbc's (hematocrit) Male 40 to 50% Female 37 to 47%
what is the size of the rbc's (mean corpuscular volume/MCV) 80 to 95 femtoliter
who is the universal blood donor O
who is the univeral blood recipient AB
how is blood classified according to the antigens on the surface of the rbc
what type of antigens does blood type A have on the rbc A antigens
what type of antigens does blood type B have on the rbc B antigens
what type of antigens does blood type AB have on the rbc AB antigens
what type of antigens does blood type O have on the rbc none
when does an agglutination occur when blood is mismatched
what is Rh factor another type of antigen on the rbc
what additonal type of antigen does Rh- have on the rbc none
what additional type of antigen does Rh+ have on the rbc Rh+
what happens to the volume and composition of blood as you age it remains constant
what happens to laboratory values as you age they remain the same
what do alterations in laboratory values for blood usually indicate an alteration in other organ systems
why do serum lipid levels increase 25 to 50% after the age of 55 it is due to an altered metabolism not due to blood or blood-forming organs
why do fasting blood glucose levels increase with age it is the result of age-related changes associated with insulin
what happens to the amount of red bone marrow with age it decreases
what happens to the total number of blood cells as we age they remain normal
why do older persons take longer to recover from bleeding episodes it takes them longer to form new blood cells
what happens to wbc as we age their activity declines
what happens to wbc activity as we age in response to infection it increases in response to the infection but it does so more slowly
what is blood poisoning (septicemia) the presence of harmful substances in the blood, such as bacteria and toxins
what is hemophilia a hereditary deficiency of factor VIII, or the mophilic factor, resulting in an impaired ability to clot blood and severe bleeding episodes
what is Christmas disease a deficiency of factor IX
what is von Willebrand's disease a deficiency of a protein that affects factor VIII function
what is leukemia cancer of the blood that is characterized by uncontrolled leukocyte production
what happens with the process of leukemia the abnormal leukocytes invade the bone marrow and impair normal blood cell production and malignant cells metastasize through the body
what is polycythemia means many cells in the blood
what is polycythemia vera means true polycythemia
what causes polycythemia vera the overproduction of blood cells (usually rbc's) by the bone marrow
what is secondary polycythemia an increase in blood cell production in response to a condition that interferes with oxygenation, such as lung disease
what are the three types of blood cells erythrocytes (rbc), leukocytes (wbc), and thrombocytes (platelets)
what are the formed elements of blood made up of erythrocytes (rbc), leukocytes (wbc), and thrombocytes (platelets)
what are the steps of hemostasis blood vessel spasm, the formation of the platelet plug, and blood clotting (coagulation)
what information can you get from a hematocrit reading the percentage of blood cells in a sample of blood and the size of rbc's
whys is bone marrow dysfunction (hypo and hyper activity) so serious because it affects the blood cell production which can affect all systems of the body
why might excessive doeses of aspirin, Coumadin, or TPA cause bleeding because they slow vascular spasm and exert antiplatelet effects
what is the immature cell of the rbc reticulocyte
what happens when the rbc is rapidly broken down it causes hyperbilirubenemia
what happens to the rbc in anemia patients they are decreased
how are rbc plasma levels monitored via changes in the hematocrit (HCT)
what blood cells is involved in the hemolytic blood transfusion reaction rbc
what blood cell are extrinsic and intrinsic factors neccessary for the synthesis of rbc
what blood cell requires iron for its synthesis and function rbc
what blood cells are highly phagocytic granylocytes wbc
what blood cells include the neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils wbc
what blood cells are primarily concerned with phagocytosis wbc
what blood cells are composed of granulocytes and agranulocytes wbc
what blood cells contribute to the formation of pus wbc
what blood cells are involved in the process of shifting to the left wbc
what blood cells are related to segs, polys, PMNs, and band cells wbc
what blood cells are related to a deficiency that causes petechiae formation and bleeding platelets
what blood cells are derived from the megakaryocyte platelets
what blood cells are primarily concerned with hemostasis platelets
what blood cells are related to stickiness and plug platelets
what is Kernicterus a serious neurological complication of erythrobastosis fetalis that results in severe mental retardation
what is the anemia that characterizes erythroblastosis fetalis hemolytic anemia
what is the anemia that is characterized by jaundice hemolytic anemia
what is the anemia that is often associated with kernicterus hemolytic anemia
what type of anemia would an infant who drinks only whole milk for the first year of life be likely to develop folic acid deficiency anemia
what is a megaloblastic anemia that is commonly seen in pregnant women and patients with alcoholism folic acid deficiency anemia
what anemia is caused by impaired function of the parietal cells in the stomach when they are unable to secrete intrinsic factor pernicious anemia
what type of anemia is a megaloblastic anemia that is treated with vitamin B12 injections pernicious anemia
what type of anemia is the most painful anemia pernicious anemia
whay type of anemia occurs when the lack of intrinsic factor impairs the absorption of extrinsic factor pernicious anemia
what type of anemia is a hereditary anemia that causes the rbc's to form a rigid crescent shape sickle cell anemia
what anemia is endemic to low income population iron deficiency anemia
what anemia is treated with ferrous sulfate iron deficiency anemia
what anemia is associated with occult blood (positive guaiac test on stools) iron deficiency anemia
what anemia is a hypochromic microcytic anemia that is often caused by a chronic slow bleeding lesion iron deficiency anemia
what anemia occurs after a severe hemorrhage iron deficiency anemia
what type of anemia has the symptom of reticulocytes usually being absent aplastic anemia
what type of anemia is often accompanied by granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia aplastic anemia
what type of anemia is often seen in a cancer patient who is being treated with powerful cytoxic drugs and radiation aplastic anemia
what type of anemia occurs in patients who are diabetic with end-stage renal disease (diabetic nephropathy) anemia of chronic renal (kidney) failure
what are polymorphs (polys), segs, and band cells neutrophils
that makes prothrombin the liver combines thrombin with vitamin K
what does myelosuppression do it dimishes the numbers of blood cells
what are vasospasm, platelet plug and blood coagualtion most related to hemostasis
what causes hypoxemia carbon monoxide binding to hemoglobin
what are lowered levels of oxygen the stimulus for the release of erythropoietin
where does bilirubin originate from hemoglobin
where is bilirubin liberated from heme
where is bilirubin excreted in bile
when is erythrobastosis fetalis most likely to occur when the mother is type A- and the baby is type A+
what is hypoprothrombinemia related to bleeding
what is granulocytopenia related to neutropenia and infection
what do plasma proteins do carry oxygen, maintain blood volume, transport hormones and substances such as bilirubin and drugs
what can rapid hemolysis cause hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
why is a person in chronic kidney failure anemic because his kidneys do not secrete adequate erythropoietin
what is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) a drug that activates plasmin and therefore dissolves clots
the hypoprothrominemic patient is most likely to benefit from an injection of vitamin K
what are albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen plasma proteins
what is thrombosis caused by venous stasis
the patient who has aplastic anemia is most likely to have a low reticulocyte count
what granulocytoic wbc is highly phagocytic neutrophil
what anticoagulant acts as an antithrombin agent heparin
what organ synthesizes erythropoietin the kidney
what clotting factor is vitamin K dependent prothrombin
what deficiency of platelets causes bleeding thrombocytopenia
what is the ratio of the formed elements of the blood to the total volume hematocrit
what organ synthesizes prothrombin the liver
Created by: 100002251654686