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Review Questions


Renin is produced by the___in response to a decrease in blood pressure and volume ad a decrease in serum sodium. juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney
Angiotensinogen is produced by the____and activated by____ liver & renin
The angiotensin converting enzyme is found mainly in the____. lungs
Aldosterone will increase reabsorption of ____,_____ &_____ Na+_, __water__, and __HCO3___.
Preload is determined by venous return to the heart
What is the Frank-Starlings law of the heart?. More in more out. The greater the preload the greater the stretch of the myocardium and the greater the force of contraction.
End diastolic volume is about 120_ MLS
End systolic volume is decreased by anything that increases the inotropic effects of the heart
What is meant by the term isovolumetric contraction of the heart? During isovolumetric contraction of the heart the semilunar and AV valves are closed and the ventricle is contraction. There is no volume change during this part of systole.
The first heart sound is due to the AV___ valve _closing
The P wave in an ECG represents atrial depolarization
The qrs complex represents ventricle__ ___depolarization
Afterload is the resistance offered by the tissues to forward flow of blood. It is Total peripheral resistance
Cardiac output is equal to the ____multiplied by the ____ stroke volume & heart rate
How do ADH and aldosterone regulate blood pressure and blood volume? ADH is responsible for reabsortion of free water. Aldosterone causes reabsorption of Na+ and water. Water increases blood volume and pressure. Na+ also increases blood pressure
The ____ carries blood out of the left ventricle __aorta____
The cardiac pause is when the atria and ventricles are both relaxed
Systole refers to ____ ventricle contraction
What is the definition of a vein? Carries blood back to the heart.
Semilunar valves close when the pressure in the Aorta or pulmonary trunk is greater than the pressure in the ventricles
The major pacemaker of the heart is the ___________. SA node
What are the two functions of the AV node? to delay the impulse from entering the venticle until the atrium has finished contracting. It can ignore impulses
How is net hydrostatic pressure determined? NHP = Blood pressure - Interstial hydrostatic pressure.
The first heart sound is due to closing of AV valves
Describe how the AV valves work The chordae tendinea are attached to the cusps of an AV valve and to papillary muscles. When the ventricle contracts and pressure increases the AV valve cusps are pushed back toward the atrium. The papillary muscles contract and prevent the cusps from b
What is atrial naturetic factor? What does it do? ANF is a hormone produced by the right atrium in response to increased preload. It causes a loss of Na+ and water from the kidneys
ADH is produced by the hypothalamus
Chemo receptors respond to a ____in pH, ____ in PCO2 and a __ _ in PO2. decrease, an increase,decrease
Reabsorption of free water is due to the hormone ADH
What is responsible for the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood Plasma protein such as albumin
Describe the baroreceptor reflex Include the cranial nerves that are involved. Baroreceptors in the carotid body and Aortic body sense a change in blood pressure on the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) cranial nerve respectively. If blood pressure falls impulse travel on these nerve
Increasing parasympathetic input into the heart will ____ heart rate Increasing parasympathetic input into the heart will _decrease___ heart rate
Systemic Venous blood returns to the heart by the _____They empty into the ____ superior_ and _inferior vena cava & right atrium of the heart.
Blood from the myocardium returns to the heart by way of the coronary sinus
The tricuspid valve is on the right________ side
Semilunar valves are found on the _______ and _______. Semilunar valves are found on the base of the aorta_______ and Semilunar valves are found on the base of the aorta_______ and __pulmonary trunk_____. __pulmonary trunk_____.
The chordae tendineae attaches to the ___________ muscles.
The plateau in the action potential of myocardium cells is due to an _____ in permeability of the membrane to the Ca++____ ion. increase
Cardiac muscle cells have long ) absolute refractory period
Describe the action potential in a pacemaker cell. At the beginning of the pacemaker potential or prepotential some Na+ gates are open, Potassium gates are closed and Ca++ gates start to open. Once the membrane potential reaches threshold more Ca++ gates open. Repolarization is due to a decrease in perm
What is the effect of hypokalemia( decreased serum potassium) on heart function? Hypokalemia increases the diffusion gradient for K+. This means that there is more K+ flow which moves the membrane potential towards the equilibrium potential for K+. This results in hyperpolarization and cardiac arrest may occur
Which type of vessel has valves? Veins
Which type of vessel has the thickest tunica media Artery
Kinins and complement proteins are produced by the B lymphocytes
What type of lymphocyte produces antibodies? Liver
Chemoreceptors in the hypothalamus respond to changes in pH and PCO2
The cardiac accelerator system is part of the sympathetic nervous system
If something has positive inotropic effects it means that it increases the force of contraction
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation redness, heat, swelling and pain
Inflammation is an example of innate immunity
The first phase of inflammation is due to the vasoactive amine called histamine
The Membrane attack complex is made up of complement proteins
What is the function of interferon? antiviral proteins produced by infected cell to stimulate non infected cell to produce interferon and other antiviral agents
Inflammation ( does not have memory
What is a hapten? Hapten is foreign material which is not capable of eliciting an immune response by itself. It need to bind to a self protein to be large enough to be antigenic
Which antibody class can cross the placenta? Ig G
Which antibody is called the secretory antibody? IG A
What happens to net filtration pressure is the blood colloid osmotic pressure decreases? If BCOP decreases net filtration pressure goes up since there is less of a force keeping fluid in the vessels.
What is edema? What can cause edema Edema is excess fluid in the tissues. A decrease in BCOP can cause edema. Increased Blood pressure can cause edema, a decrease in plasma proteins can cause edema.
Which antibody class mediates allergies? Ig E
Which antibody class is found in highest concentration in the plasma? Ig G
T helper cells are also called ____positive cells CD4+
Class 1 MHC proteins are HLA HLA A, HLA B and HLA C
Class 1 MHC proteins are found on ____cells all nucleated cells
Class 2 MHC proteins present to CD CD4
Humoral or classic immunity is carried out __cells B cells
Discuss antigen processing by a macrophage. Antigen is taken in by macrophage and fuses with a lysosome. It then bind to either a class 1 or class2 MHC protein and is presented to immune cells
Basophils give rise to _________ cells. mast
Which antibody is a pentamer? Ig M
Which chain of an antibody is class specific? heavy
Blood from the coronary veins return to the right atrium by way of the ________ ________. coronary sinus
Which vessels have valves? valves
Which tunic is thickest in arteries? tunica media
Endothelium is made up of _____ ______ epithelium simple squamous
This lymph organ is used to remove worn out red blood cells. Spleen
Seasonal allergies are a Type ____hypersensitivty one
What is a hapten Hapten is foreign material which is not capable of eliciting an immune response by itself. It need to bind to a self protein to be large enough to be antigenic
Created by: Kayla.Vaughan