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Dat organic


X2 addition to alkane results Free radical substitution BR attach to more substituted C Cl looks for primary C
____ nucleus lover and electron rich Nucleophile
RO- is a ______ nucleophile strong
in Protic solvents _______ atoms are better nucleophiles, increases down a group larger atoms,( I is stronger than F)
in aprotic solvents (DMSO) _______ bases are better nucleophiles strong bases the halides F is strongest
Leaving groups are _______ bases weak; I is preferred over F
______ forms Carbocation. Favors more substituted carbocation and good leaving group and protic solvents, and racemic products (2) Sn1
bimolecular substitution, strong nucleophile, no steric hindrance, aprotic solvents, optical activity maintaied SN2, (bonds are flipped
cis/z have higher ______ than trans/ E boiling points (polar)
trans/E have higher _____ than cis/Z melting points (nonpolar)
favors highly substituted carbocation, protic solvents, good leaving group and HIGH temps E1
STRONG BASE, STERIC HINDRANCE,more substituted double bond is preferred, E2
Alkene+ H2 with Pd ------------> Catalytic hydrogenation; H added on same side " syn" to form alkane
Alkene+ HX------> Sn1: H adds first to least subst C the halide to most subst C aka markovnikovs
Alkene+ X2 Sn2: the halides are added anti (opp)to each other
Alkene+ H2O under acidic conditions Sn1: H adds first then Oh to most stable Carbocation aka Markovnikov
Alkene + HX in presence of peroxides, oxygen or other impurities free radical rxns which are antimarkovnikov ( X adds first and H last to more subst C)
Alkene+ B2H6 hydroboration; Boron attach to less subst C then H adds to most stable C then B is replaced by OH. Syn addition and anti markov
Alkene + cold dilute Kmno4 syn addn 1,2 diol (OH, OH addn on either side of = bond
Alkene + hot basic KMNO4 1. terminal alkene= carboxylic acid +Co2 2. non terminal = 2 Carboxylic acids
Alkene + Ozone with Zn adds =O splits the original double bond and adds H, 1 product
Alkene + ozone with NaBh4 spits duble bond and adds OH, 2 alcohols formed
Alkene + mcpba oxiranes, epoxide
alkyne have ____ boiling points than alkenes higher
synthesize alkyne geminal or vicinal halide + high temps and strong base. removes 2 HX
Alkyne+ lindlars catalyst (H2+ Pd)----> cis alkene
Alkyne + Na in ammmonia trans alkene
Alkyne + X2 markovnikov, alken halide
Alkyne + free radical anti mark, trans isomer alkene is more stable. ( X opp the higher prioriy)
Alkyne + hydroboration syn, alkene ( adds 2 H)
non terminal Alkyne + basic KMNO4 then acid 2 carboxylc acids
general formula for aromatic compd 4n+2pi electron
1,2 disub in aryl compds ortho
1,3 disub in aryl compds meta
1,4 disub in aryl compds para
arom compds + X2 in lewis acid eg FeBr3 monosubstituted X product
arom compd + So3 in H2SO4 monosub SO3H addition
arom compd + HNO3 in H2So4 monosubstitute NO2
arom compds + friedel craft in lewis acid monosub + the cl is lost from acyl grp
arom + H2 an Rh/C removes all the double bonds
synthesize alkene elimination of alcohols or alkyl halide
base + alkyl halide lose HX forms alkene
alcohol + acid lose H and OH forms alkene
aprotic solvent have H attached to C
protic solvent have Ha attached to electroneg atoms like O, N, F
aprotic solvents favor _____________ SN2 or E2 because they have strong bases that would react with a proton if present
strong nucleophile ability to fit so cant be bulky
bulky nucleophile is a _______ nucleopjile and ______ base and favors _____ rxns weak; strong; E2
_______ Oh on benzene phenol
ch3 on benzene toluene
nh2 on benzene aniline
for cycloalkenes that have a branched grp we assign1 at the start of alkene then move thru the alkene then number the branch grp
for compds with alkyne and alkene we name it we number to give them the lowest numbers but the yne and ene shud a=be alphabetized after numbering
H2 with poisoned catalyst +alkyne forms cis H addition on alkene
alkene stability is based on the number of substitution about the double bond more is more stable
heteroatom aromatic compd has either N or O in the ring and stilll follows 4n+2pi
Created by: smuttz


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