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A&P lessons3

anatomy and physiology

"Metabolism" refers to all of the chemical reactions in a cell.
Anabolic metabolism refers to biochemical reactions that synthesize compounds.
What is an example of catabolism? The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Catabolism refers to breakdown of large molecules.
An example of an anabolic reaction is many monosaccharides bonding, forming glycogen.
In dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate, monosaccharides join
When a sucrose molecule is decomposed to yield a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule water molecule is used
Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____. lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds
What is not a characteristic of enzymes? They are most active at temperatures about 53 degrees C.
An enzyme is a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
The name of an enzyme ends in -ase
The basic steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are: substrate and enzyme combine, forming an E-S complex. The reaction occurs, products are released, and the unchanged enzyme is released and recycled.
What describes the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate? Part of the enzyme temporarily binds part of the substrate molecule.
An important mechanism that controls metabolic pathways under physiological conditions is negative feedback
Three factors that increase the rates of enzyme-controlled reactions are the number of enzyme molecules, number of substrate molecules, and efficiency of the enzyme.
A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____. a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc
Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients act as cofactors.
A molecule that carries energy in a form the cell can use is ATP
ATP is important to cellular processes because it provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.
Energy is defined as the capacity of matter to change.
What is the function of ATP molecules in living cells? They hold energy from the oxidation of fuels in their high-energy phosphate bonds, and the energy is used in various cell processes.
Oxidation during cellular respiration differs from burning in that respiration uses enzymes to lower the activation energy.
The reactions of anaerobic respiration take place in the cytoplasm
Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration? ATP
A molecule that is common to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and connects these two pathways metabolically is acetyl coenzyme A
A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in glycolysis
In the citric acid cycle carbon dioxide is released
In cellular respiration, energy is released from molecules and is transferred to other molecules.
Anaerobic respiration occurs in _____, whereas aerobic respiration occurs in ______. cytoplasm without O2 required; mitochondria with O2 required
Anaerobic respiration breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecules, occurs in the absence of oxygen, releases energy, transfers energy to ATP molecules.
Aerobic respiration requires oxygen
A molecule that is a storage form of carbohydrate is glycogen
Which choice lists structures in order of increasing size? nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome
If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is AGTCCGATAAGGGC.
DNA replication occurs during interphase of the cell cycle.
During DNA replication, the DNA double helix comes apart where hydrogen bonds join base pairs, and new nucleotides are brought in, forming two double helices
How many codons specify the twenty types of amino acids? 61
The genetic code is the correspondence between a DNA nucleotide and a specific amino acid.
Which of the following is not true regarding RNA? It is double-stranded.
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of DNA but not RNA? thymine
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA? Uracil
A sequence of DNA 333 nucleotides long that is part of a gene encodes ___ amino acids. 111
DNA transcribed to mRNA always begins with the sequence AUG
Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule is called transcription
Transcription and translation differ in that transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein.
A peptide bond forms between adjacent amino acids held on a ribosome and bound to tRNAs.
Codons are part of mRNA
Synthesis of a protein stops when any of three "stop" codons are encountered in the mRNA.
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes an mRNA of sequence UUGCCACGUGGUGCC
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes a portion of a protein of sequence leu-pro-arg-gly-ala
A mutation is a change in a DNA sequence in less than 1% of a population that affects anatomy and/or physiology.
The genome sequences of different individuals are about 99.9% alike
A mutation can cause disease if the DNA sequence changes so that one amino acid is substituted for another in a way that affects the encoded protein's functioning.
Three types of genetic changes are mutations, SNPs, and changes in copy number.
An active site is the part of a substrate molecule that binds an enzyme. False
An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates. True
The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane. True
All of the genetic information in a cell is a genome. True
The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information for making a protein is called a gene. True
A DNA molecule is a double helix in which A pairs with C and T pairs with G. False
A DNA sequence of CGCTTACGATTG would be transcribed into an RNA sequence of GCGAAUGCUAAC. True
Three types of RNA participate in protein synthesis. True
The part of the tRNA that binds mRNA is the anticodon. TRue
Anaerobic and aerobic respiration begin with _______, in which glucose is broken down. glycolysis
The molecule that an enzyme affects is its _________. substrate
Adenine and guanine are ________ and cytosine and thymine are ______. purines; pyrimidines
The substances acted upon by an enzyme is called______. substrate
When amino acids are bonded to form proteins the process involves dehydration synthesis
Which of the following does not denature an enzyme? the process involves dehydration synthesis
Which of the following does not denature an enzyme? addition of water
What is the net ATP production in glycolysis? 2
The anaerobic phase of cellular respiration is called _______. glycolysis
During anaerobic conditions, when low oxygen levels may occur, glucose is converted to what stable end product to provide ATP energy? lactic acid
The formation of ATP involving the loss of hydrogen atoms and the bonding of phosphate to ADP is called oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following is a difference between RNA and DNA molecules? Which of the following is a difference between RNA and DNA molecules?
mRNA carries information from the _____ to the _____. nucleus to the ribosomes
tRNA functions to carry carry amino acids to the ribosomes
Where does transcription occur? nucleus
Where does translation occur? ribosomes
During the process of protein synthesis, amino acids are positioned in proper sequence by molecules of transfer RNA
What is the name for a series of 3 nucleic acid bases contained on mRNA? codon
What is the name for a series of 3 nucleic acids bases on the tRNA? anticodon
What is the name of the process that synthesizes mRNA from DNA using a section called a gene? transcription
Bonds between the complementary base pairs in DNA. hydrogen
An enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction in the cell, but can only be used once. false
The enzyme _____________ unzips and unwinds the DNA molecule. helicase
The leading strand is replicated continuously, while the lagging strand is replicated discontinuously. True
Translation is the synthesis of proteins from mRNA
The codon of tRNA is complementary to the anticodon of mRNA. False
In glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate
____ is the number of codons that specify the 20 types of animo acids. 61
Which of the following is an enzyme? amylase
During aerobic respiration, the last carrier protein transfers a pair of electrons to __________________. oxygen
Electrons enter the ETC when NADH transfers them there along with protons in the form of hydrogen. True
Under anaerobic conditions, the end product of glycolysis is converted to ________. lactic acid
____________ is the enzyme that begins transcription. RNA polymerase
What do 2 circuits of Krebs cycle produce? 2 ATP, 4 NADH, 2 FADH2
Before entering Kreb's cycle, pyruvate is converted to acetic acid. False
An enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction in the cell, but can only be used once. False
If DNA has a sequence of bases (ATG), what would the mRNA sequence be? UAC
If DNA has a sequence of bases (TAG), what would the tRNA sequence be? AUC
Created by: jaleesap21