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A&P Lessons

anatomy and physiology

Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions in organisms.
We eat chemicals, body functions reflecting cellular functions that reflect chemical changes, drugs are chemicals, and chemical reactions enable our bodies to extract energy from nutrients is the reason why Chemistry is important to the study of physiology
Which of the following substances account for more than 95% of the human body? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
The atomic weight of an element whose atoms contain 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons is 16
The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in the number of neutrons
The first electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
An atom that has 3 electrons in its second shell and a filled first shell will lose 3 electrons from its second shell.
A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by AB → A + B.
A solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions is neutral
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water are acids
A chemical reaction in which pairs of different molecules trade positions is a(n) exchange reaction
Electrolytes are substances that ionize when dissolved in water.
The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution.
What is the most abundant inorganic substance in cells? water
A person has alkalosis if the blood pH rises above 7.4
Matter is composed of ____, which are composed of _____. elements; atoms
Atomic number equals the number of ______ and atomic weight equals the ____. protons; number of protons plus neutrons
Synthesis reactions are particularly important in the body for growth of body parts.
In a covalent bond atoms share pairs of electrons.
On the pH scale a tenfold difference in hydrogen ion concentration separates each whole number, the lower the whole number on the scale, the greater the H+ concentration, pH values above 7 are basic, pH values below 7 are acidic.
Sodium ions and calcium ions are examples of cations
An acid reacting with a base is an exchange reaction
Bases reacting with acids form ________ and water. electrolytes
Organic molecules ____, whereas inorganic molecules ____. contain carbon; do not contain carbon
In the body, oxygen releases energy from glucose during cellular respiration
Contains C,H,O with twice as many hydrogen as oxygen atoms, they provide much of the energy that the cell requires, they often are stored as reserve energy supplies, they include sugars and starches are all characteristics of: carbohydrates
A simple carbohydrate has a molecular formula of C6H12O6
What is insoluble in water, includes phospholipids, cholesterol, and fats, contains C,H, and O, but with proportionately less oxygen than in carbohydrates, and are organic? Lipids
A protein can denature when weak hydrogen bonds break
Lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, cholesterol are all: Organic
Saturated fats _______ than unsaturated fats. have more single carbon-carbon bonds
These are structural materials, are chemical messengers, contain C,H, O, and N, and sometimes sulfur, can function as enzymes? Proteins
An enzyme is a ___. protein that speeds up chemical reactions without being changed or depleted
DNA stores genetic information.
Nucleic acids are composed of building blocks called nucleotides.
Nucleic acids include RNA and DNA
DNA and RNA differ in that DNA holds genetic information and RNA uses that information to synthesize protein
An organic compound contains carbon and hydrogen.
Carbon can form __ covalent bonds 4
ribose, 5-carbon sugar, 6-carbon sugar, and deoxyribose are all Monosaccharides
A triglyceride consists of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and water are all hydrophilic
The symbol Na+ represents a sodium atom that has lost an electron True
At atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an ion. True
Water is an example of a compound True
What is the number of protons in an atom of sodium? 11
If chlorine has the atomic mass of 35 and the atomic number of 17: What is the number of neutrons in chlorine? 18
What are the sub-atomic particles with "no mass"? electrons
What is the sub-atomic particle that the atomic number is based on? protons
What is the atomic mass of an atom with 23 protons, 24 neutrons, and 25 electrons? 47
How many electrons are in the outer energy level of an electrically neutral oxygen atom? 6
What is the name given to any positively charged ion? cation
What type of bond is formed by the transfer of electrons? ionic
What is the name given to any negatively charged ion? anion
This is a name that refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses. isotope
Which atom, when looking at the periodic table, has 2 energy levels and 2 electrons in the outer energy level? beryllium
Is an atom of potassium more likely to become a cation or anion? cation
What type of reaction is demonstrated as A + BC --> AC + B? single replacement
What is the smallest unit of matter? atom
A total of how many electrons are needed to fill the outer shell of most atoms? 8
What type of bond is found between the bases in a DNA molecule? hydrogen
This type of protein aids in chemical reactions without itself being used up. enzyme
If a protein's shape is changed then it has been___________. denatured
An atom, to become stable, is always trying to fill it's ___________. outer energy level of electrons
A + B ---> AB is an example of a ___________ reaction. synthesis
A chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons is a/an _____________ bond. ionic
sugars, starches, glycogen, and cellulose are all types of: carbohydrates
Surcose is a type of: disaccharide
What are the major classes of organic compounds? carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acids, proteins
Glycogen is most similar to: starch
Substances that enter into a chemical reaction are called reactants
What can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon
A nonsymmetrical distribution of electrical charges polar
All carbohydrates are composed of H, C, O
The following reaction: NaOH + HCl ----> NaCl + H2O is an example of double replacement
The most abundant element in living things oxygen
Inorganic substance that is a waste product in respiration carbon dioxide
We get most of our food energy from carbohydrates
Glycogen, a major nutrient reserve of animals, is an example of a polysaccharide
What helps steroid to form other steroids? cholesterol
The bond between amino acids is a/an covalent and peptide bond
A simple sugar is a: monosaccharide and glucose
RNA and DNA are together known as this type of organic compound nucleic acids
pH scale ranges from 0-14
5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate group are all parts of? nucleotide
___________________ occurs by repeatedly forming peptide bonds that link individual amino acids together into a chain. polymerization
a pH of 3 is strong acid
Lipids are important as: membrane components and energy molecules
Fats are best described as being composed of: glycerol and saturated fatty acids
This molecule has a hydrophobic and a hydrophyllic portion. phospholipid
If an atom had the atomic number 14 and atomic mass of 27, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons would it have? 14,13,14
Enzymes are proteins and catalysts
What is composed of C,H, and O in which there are twice as many H to O? carbohydrate
This term refers to the "water loving" nature of the phospholipid head. hydrophyllic
The 4 organic compounds are: nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
A chemical that resists pH changes buffers
Which element is inert? Ne
The building blocks of proteins amino acids
The assembly of irreversibly denatured protein molecules results in formation of a _________? solid gel
Created by: jaleesap21



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