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Anatomy Test 2 SS

Skeletal System

Skeletal System Bones make up our internal framework Arranged for our upright posture, Strong, Light-weight, divided into two divisions, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton, Includes bones, joints, cartilage and ligaments
Axial skeleton Bones (spine and skull) that form the longitudinal axis of the body
Appendicular skeleton the bones of our limbs and girdles (pelvic/shoulder)
Functions of Skeletal System Support, Protection, Movement, Storage, Blood Cell Formation
Support (function of SS) Gives body shape and form, forms Internal framework, Supports our weight and body walls
Protection (function of SS) Protects soft body organs, Includes Skull, Vertebrae, Ribs, Pelvis
What does the skull protect the brain
What do the vertebrae protect the spinal cord
What do the ribs protect the heart and lungs
What does the pelvis protect organs of lower GI
Movement (function of SS) Skeletal system provides place of attachment for tendons of muscles, as muscles shorten they pull on bones, which act as levers to produce movement at joints
Storage (function of SS) Stores fats and minerals (Ca and P) in the internal cavities of bones
Bone marrow the internal cavity of bone
What fats and minerals are stored? Calcium and Phosphorus
Hematopoiesis “blood cell formation” formation of blood cells within the marrow cavities of bones
How many bones are in the Skeletal System 206 bones
What determines function of the bone shape and size
What are the Two types of bone tissue Compact Bone & Spongy bone
Compact Bone Dense, very hard, looks smooth and Homogeneous (even) throughout, located Down shaft of long bones, Gives toughness/rigidity to bones, contain Many passageways for nerves and blood vessels carrying in nutrients and a route for disposal of waste products
Spongy Bone “cancellous bone” spiky, open, Honeycomb appearance; composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space, Found in heads of bones at both ends,
4 types of Bone Classification Long, Short, Flat, and irregular
Long Bones Longer in length than they are in width (Long shaft), with a head at both ends, have Compact bone on outside and lined with spongy bone on inside, Found in limbs meta-tarsals, and metacarpals
Short Bones Cube-shaped, mostly spongy bone, Found in carpals, tarsals, and sesamoid bones, Patella
Sesamoid bones a special type of short bone, best example is the patella
Flat Bones Two thin layers of flat and curved compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone on inside, Found in skull, ribs, and sternum (breastbone)
Irregular Bones Bones that do not fit into any of the other categories, Found in pelvis (hip) and vertebrae
Long bone Structure (7 parts) contains the Diaphysis, periosteum, sharpey’s fibers “perforating fibers”, epiphysis, articular cartilage, epiphyseal line, epiphyseal plate
Diaphysis composed of compact bone and makes up most of the bone’s length (shaft of bone) covered and protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called the periosteum,
Periosteum fibrous connective tissue covering the shaft
Sharpey’s fibers fibers of connective tissue that secure periosteum to the bone
Epiphysis ends or heads of long bones, thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone
Articular cartilage covers external surface of epiphysis, Smooth slippery joint surface made of glassy hyaline cartilage, decreases friction at joint surfaces
Epiphyseal line Mature bone, the remnant of the epiphyseal growth plate, thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis,
Epiphyseal plate flat growth plate of hyaline cartilage found in young growing bones that causes lengthwise growth of long bones, Eventually replaced by bone when growth stops
Medullary canal (Medullary cavity) hollow inside of bone shaft, Storage area for fat or yellow marrow in adults
where are blood cells produced and red marrow found in infants? In the Medullary canal
Where is red marrow and blood cell formation found In Adults? In cavities of spongy bone of flat bones and the epiphyses of some long bones
Bone Surface Markings Any bump, ridge, projection, hole, or flattened area on bone;
What do Bone surface markings indicate (2) For attachment of ligaments, tendons, muscles; where nerves or vessels to pass through
Projections or processes for Attachment grow out of bone, terms that begin with T
Depressions or cavities indentations in the bone, Terms that begin with F (except facet)
Tuberosity; where are they located Rough surface, large, rounded projections, located on the Tibia, ischium, humerus, radius, femur
Osgood schlatters disease in the knee, affects the tracking
Crest; where are they located prominent narrow ridge, located on the Tibia, ilium, sacrum
Trochanter; where are they located large, blunt, irregularly shaped process, similar to tuberosity, but bigger, located on the Femur
Line; where are they located narrow ridge, less prominent than a crest, located on the Femur
Tubercle; where are they located small rounded projection, similar to tuberosity and trochanter, located on the Humerus, femur
Epicondyle; where are they located raised area above condyle, located on the distal end of the Humerus
Tennis elbow inflammation on the epicondyle
Spine; where are they located sharp, slender, pointed projection, located on the Scapula, ischium, ilium (4)
Spine of scapula sticks out and actually runs the length of scapula
Process; where are they located any boney prominence located on Vertebrae, radius, ulna, temporal bone
Projections for Joints Head, Facet, Condyle, Ramus
Head; where are they located Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck, located on the Femur, humerus, radius, fibula
Facet; where are they located smooth, flattened articular surface, located on Ribs, vertebrae
Condyle; where are they located rounded, articular projections; located on the Femur, tibia
Ramus; where are they located arm-like bar of bone; located on the Mandible, ischium, pubis
Meatus; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Canal-like passage; located on the Ear canal (temporal bone)
Sinus; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Cavity filled with air and lined with mucous membrane within a bone; located on the Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid sinuses
Fossa; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Shallow basin like depression, often serve as an articular surface; located on the Scapula, humerus, femur, where brain sits in skull
Groove; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Furrow (ditch); located on the Mandible
Fissure; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Narrow, slit-like opening (narrow but deep); Eye sockets
Foramen; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) Round or oval opening through bone; located on the Skull, vertebrae, pelvis, sacrum
Notch; where are they located (Depressions and Openings) indentation at the edge of a structure; located on the end of the mandible?
Compact bone anatomy (includes 7 parts) osteocytes, lacunae, lamellae, canacliculi, haversian canal, volkmann’s cannal, osteon
Osteocytes part of compact bone, mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae
Lacunae part of compact bone, arranged in concentric circles called lamellae, around central (Haversian) cannals, house bone cells
Lamellae part of compact bone, concentric rings of lacunae found around the central Haversian canal
Canaliculi part of compact bone, tiny/minute canals radiating out from the central canal in all directions to lacunae, form a transportation system that connects all the bone cells to the nutrient supply through the hard bone matrix
Haversian Canal part of compact bone, “central canal”, central longitudinal canals run lengthwise through the bony matrix, carrying blood vessels and nerves to all areas of the bone
Volkman Canal part of compact bone, “perforating canal” horizontal canals of bones that carry blood vessels and connect osteons to the medullary cavity, communication pathway from the outside of the bone to interior
Osteon part of compact bone, each complex consisting of central canal and matrix rings, Also known as a Haversian system
Trabeculae form beam-like network, Little beam-like appearance, Open spaces are filled with marrow
Axial Skeleton and parts of the axial skeleton (3) Forms longitudinal axis of the body, divided into three parts, skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
Skull formed from 2 sets of bones, cranium and facial bones, all bones are joined together by sutures, except for mandible
Sutures (definition) interlocking, immovable joints
Coronal suture separates frontal bone from parietal bones
Sagittal suture go down middle (separates left and right parietals)
Squamous suture on side (separates parietal from temporal, top and bottom)
Lambdoid suture on back (coming in like ^), joins the occipital bone with parietal bones
Cranium Encloses and protects the brain, composed of 8 large, flat bones, all single bones except for parietal and temporal
Frontal bone forms the forehead, the bony projection under the eyebrows, and the superior part of each eye’s orbit
Parietal bones (2 bones) one on each side, form most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium, meeting in the midline of the skull at the sagittal suture and form the coronal suture, where they connect to the frontal bone
Temporal bones (2 bones) one on each side, inferior to the parietal bones, creating squamous sutures
Temporal bones external auditory meatus, styloid process, zygomatic process, mastoid process, jugular foramen
External acoustic meatus canal that leads to the eardrum and middle ear, where sound enters, part of the temporal bone
Styloid process part of the temporal bone, sharp, needle-like projection, inferior of external auditory meatus, attachment point of many neck muscles
Zygomatic process part of the temporal bone, thin bridge of bone that joins with the cheek bone (zygomatic bone) anteriorly
Mastoid process part of the temporal bone, full of air cavities (mastoid sinuses), rough projection posterior and inferior to the external acoustic meatus, attachment site for some muscles of the neck
Jugular foramen located at the junction of the occipital and temporal bones, allows passage of the jugular vein.
Jugular vein largest vein of the head
Internal acoustic meatus located in the cranial cavity, interior to the jugular foramen, transmits cranial nerves VII and VII (facial and vestibulocochlear nerves), part of the temporal bone
Carotid canal anterior to the jugular foramen on the skull’s inferior aspect, canal which the internal carotid artery runs through, part of the temporal bone
Internal carotid artery supplies blood to most of the brain
Occipital bone (1 bone) most posterior bone of the cranium, forms the base and the back wall of the skull, joins the parietal bones anteriorly at the lambdoid suture
Occipital bones foramen magnum, occipital condyles
Foramen magnum surrounds the lower part of the brain and allows the spinal cord to connect with the brain, part of the occipital bone
Occipital condyles lateral to the formen magnum on each side, rest on the 1st vertebra of the spinal column, rockerlike, part of the occipital bone
Sphenoid bone butterfly-shaped, spans the width of the skull and forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity
Sphenoid bones structures sella turca, forman ovale, optic canal, superior orbital fissure, spehoid sinuses, greater wing, lesser wing
Sella turcica “Turk’s Saddle” In the midline of sphenoid bone, small depression, forms a snug enclosure for the pituitary gland, part of the sphenoid bone
Forman ovale a large ovale opening in line with the posterior end of sella turicica, allows fibers of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve) to pass to the chewing muscles of the jaw (mandible), part of the sphenoid bone
Optic canal allows optical nerve to pass to the eye, part of the sphenoid bone
Superior orbital fissure slit-like, opening where cranial nerves (III IV & VI) controlling eye movements pass through, part of the sphenoid bone
Spheniod sinuses central part of sphenoid, air cavities, part of the sphenoid bone
Greater wing & Lesser wing parts of the sphenoid bone
Ethmoid bone very irregularly shaped, lies anterior to the sphenoid, forms roof off the nasal cavity and part of the medial walls of the orbits
Ethmoid Bones Crista galli, Cribiform plate, Superior and middle nasal conchae
Crista galli “Cock’s comb” projects from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, outermost covering of the brain attaches to this projection, part of the ethmoid bone
Cribriform plates holey area on each side of the crista galli, allow nerve fibers carrying impulses from the olfactory receptors of the nose to reach the brain, part of the ethmoid bone
Superior and middle nasal conchae form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and increase the turbulence of air flowing through the nasal passages, part of the ethmoid bone
Where are the Sphenoid and ethmoid bones found? behind the eyes and nose
Where does the Nerve for smell sit? The nerve for smell sits in the Ethmoid
Fetal skull face is small compared to cranium, skull is large compared to body ¼ of body length, bone yet remains to be ossified (converted to bone)
Fontanels fibrous membranes that have not yet converted to bone but connect the cranial bones, not fully developed joints, Allows compression of skull during birth process, allows brain room to grow, all converted 22-24 months after birth
Facial Bones holds the eyes in an anterior position and allow the facial muscles to show our feelings through smiles or frowns, 14 bones, twelve are paired, mandible and vomer are single
Maxillae (2 maxillary bones) fuse to form the upper jaw, Comes in contact with All bones in the face except mandible, Keystone bones of face, Holds face together, Forms portion of hard palate, creates alveolar process/margins
Alveolar margins “alveolar process” rim of bone at teeth, Sockets where teeth fit in
Palatine Process extensions of the maxillae form anterior part of the hard palate of the mouth
Sinuses drain into the nasal passage
Paranasal sinuses surround the nasal cavity, lighten the skull bones and amplify the sounds we make as we speak
Palatine bones 2 bones lie posterior to the palatine processes of the maxillae, forming the posterior part of the hard palate
Cleft palate failure of the palatine bones or palatine process to fuse, Roof of mouth does not close, Causes high risk infection from food in the nose, Won’t be able to feed from mother because the baby won’t be able to suck
Zygomatic bones 2 bones that form the cheek bones and later wall of eye socket “orbits”
Lacrimal bones 2 finger nail sized bones that form part of the medial wall of each eye socket, inside the orbit, contains a groove that serves as a passageway for tears
Meaning of Lacrima tear
Nasal bones 2 small rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose
Vomer bone bone in the midian line of the nasal cavity, forms medial bony nasal septum (divides right from left)
Inferior Nasal Conchae two thin, curved bones that form the lateral walls of nasal cavity, more bony surface area inside the nasal passages, warms and moistens air, traps bacteria, turbinate the air
Mandible Lower jaw, Largest and strongest bone of face, Connects to temporal bone on each side of the face, only facial bone that does NOT touch the maxillae, Mandible and temporal bone form only freely moving joint of skull (Temporal Mandibular Joint)
Mandible is composed of what parts body (chin), rami (upright bars that connect the mandible with the temporal bone and alveoli (lower teeth that lie in the alveolar process at the superior edge of the mandibular body
Alveolar Margin/process part where sockets of teeth are
Hyoid Bone not part of the skull, only bone that doesn’t articulate directly w/ any other bone, suspended in the midneck, anchored by ligaments to the styloid process of the temporal bones, horseshoe-shaped (body, 2 horns “cornua”), attachment point for neck muscles
What bones compose the Roof of the mouth right & left maxillae, right & left palatine
*Orbit eye socket made up of 6 bones
What 6 bones make up the orbit frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, ethmoid bone, lacrimal bone, maxillary bone, *pterygoid/Palatine (depends on the reference whether or not it is part of the orbit)
Hyoid Bone only bone that doesn't attach directly to any other bone, forms a movable base for tongue, firm for the tongue, attachment point for mid-neck muscles involved in speech and swallowing, When strangled, the bone is fractured/broken
Vertebral Column “the spine” the axial support of the body, extends from the skull to the pelvis, formed from 26 irregular bones connected and reinforced by ligaments resulting in a flexible and curved structure, protects spinal cord which runs through the column
How many vertebrae are in the spin before birth there are 33 separate bones, but 9 fuse together leaving 24 separate vertebrae plus 1 coccyx and 1 sacrum
How many bones are there of each vertebrae 7 cervical vertebrae (neck), 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower back)
Vertebrae bones of the spine, flexible to allow movement, Touch at facets, only contact of vertebrae above and below, extends from skull to pelvis (sacrum), 26 irregular shaped vertebrae, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
Shape & quantity of Cervical vertebrae (C1-C7) concave, 7
Shape & quantity of thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) convex, 12, attach to ribs
Shape & quantity of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5), concave, 5,lower back
Shape and quantity of sacrum (5 fused) 1 bone, convex
Coccyx (4 fused), the tailbone
Intervertebral discs pads of flexible fibrocartilage that separate each individual vertebrae, cushion and absorb shocks while allowing the spine flexibility
Normal Spine Curvatures absorb shock, provide flexibility
primary curvatures curvatures in the thoracic and sacral regions, present at birth
kyphosis (backwards C, convex) two primary curves as in a new born baby
secondary curves develop after birth, curvature in the cervical (tilt head back at 3 months) and lumbar (begin to walk) regions, allow us to center our body weight on our lower limbs, convex curve that goes the other way
lordosis (looks like C, concave, arch), Pregnant women develop excessive lordosis
abnormal curves scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis
Scoliosis Can have “C” or “S”, Points not lining up straight, Excessive Lordosis & Kyphosis
Common Vertebral Anatomy vertebral body, vertebral arch, vertebral foramen, lamina, pedicle, transverse process, spinous process, superior and inferior articular processes
vertebral body weight bearing disc of bone on the anterior side of the vertebral bone
vertebral arch arch of bone formed from the joining of the posterior extensions (2 pedicles (vertical walls)+ 2 lamina(slanted wall (back wall)) from the vertebral body, the ring/arch that projects from the body
vertebral foramen “Spinal Canal” the opening through which the spinal cord passes
Lamina Wall, inside of the ring, connected to pedicles
Pedicle Wall inside of ring, wall off of the body
Laminectomy Removal of lamina, Lamina has been removed
Transverse process two lateral projections from vertebral arch
Spinous process single projection at posterior aspect of the vertebral arch (fused lamina), allows for muscle attachment
Superior and inferior articular processes “Facets” paired projections that form joints w adjacent vertebrae above and below, only place vertebrae contacts another vertebra
Cervical Vertebrae C1 through C7, form the neck region of the spine
C1 Vertebra “Atlas”, no vertebral body, ring of bone, makes nod "yes" motion (0 and 1 gliding together)
C2 Vertebra “axis”, no vertebral body, dens “odontoid process” (anterior process) , pivots for "no" motion, axis of rotation
Odontoid process Large upright process, also called dens, post of axis (C2 vertebrae)
C3- C7 vertebrae typical vertebrae, smallest and lightest vertebrae, short spinous process with 2 branches (forked “bifid”), contain transverse processes that have foramina
Foramina openings for vertebral arteries to pass thru, going to brain, indicative of cervical vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae T12-T12, Typical vertebrae, Larger than cervical vertebrae, Only vertebrae to articulate w/ribs “Costal facets”, long and downward pointing spinous process, look like a giraffe’s head
Costal facets 2 articulating surfaces on thoracic vertebrae, receive the heads of the ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae L1-L5, Large, massive bodies made for weight bearing, holds the Most force and weight, Very sturdy, very short and square (hatchet-shaped) spinous process
L5 Vertebra Articulates w/ sacrum below
Lumbar fusion Screwing bolts into pedicles to straighten the lumbar vertebrae, limits motion, removes and replaces disc
Laminectomy removal of the lamina
Sacrum at the base of spinal column, 5 fused vertebrae, connects to L5 above and each pelvic girdle laterally (dimples in back of hips), and coccyx inferiorly, two ala, forms the posterior wall of the pelvis, median sacral crest, sacral cannal, sacral hiatus,
Median sacral crest the fused spinous process of the sacral vertebrae, flanked laterally by posterior sacral foramina
Sacral canal continuation of the vertebral cannal, terminates in a large inferior opening called the sacral hiatus
Sacral hiatus end of the vertebral cannal/sacral cannal
Alae winglike, articulate laterally with the hip bones, forming the SI joint
SI Joint Sacroiliac joint, where the sacrum and the iliac contact
Coccyx “tailbone”, 3-5 fused tiny irregularly shaped vertebrae, can’t put put metal in (muscles grow over to protect)
Thoracic (Rib) Cage Forms a protective, cone shaped cage of slender bones around the organs of the thoracic cavity, Protects heart, lungs, and major blood vessels, Composed of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum, intercostals muscles
Bony thorax sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae, also reffered to as thoracic cage
Intercostal muscles muscles that aid in breathing located in The spaces in between ribs
Sternum (breastbone) typical Flat bone which is good for blood cell formation “hematopoiesis”, Fusion of 3 bones (manubrium, body, xiphoid process), have distinguishable landmarks, attached to first 7 pairs of ribs
Name the 3 fused bones in the sternum Manubrium, Body of sternum, Xiphoid
Landmarks of the sternum jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
Jugular notch concave upper border of the manubrium, Right above manubrium (little indent), easily palpated, level of the third thoracic vertebra
Sternal angle Angle where manubrium and sternum meet, forms a transverse ridge, at the level of the second ribs, reference point for counting ribs, and for listening to certain heart valves
Xiphisternal joint point where the sterna body and xiphoid process fuse, lies at the level of the ninth thoracic vertebra, at the bottom
Ribs 12 pairs, all articulate with thoracic vertebrae posteriorly, curve downward, 1-7 are true ribs, 8-12 considered false ribs, 11-12 are floating ribs,
True Ribs 1-7 ribs, directly attach to sternum by costal cartilages
1st rib looks like C (right under collar bone) clavicle and 1st rib attaches to manubrium
False ribs 8-12 ribs, attach to one big piece of cartilage that extends up to sternum, indirectly attached to sternum or not at alll
Floating ribs 11-12 ribs, do not attach to anything
Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones of the limbs, & pectoral and pelvic girdles, includes bones of arms, pectoral girdles, legs, and pelvic girdles
Shoulder Girdle Also known as pectoral (chest area) girdle, Consists of 2 bones, clavicle and scapula
Clavicle collar bone, slender, doubly curved bone. Attaches to the manubrium of the sternum medially and the scapula laterally, helps to form the shoulder joint, acts as a brace to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax and to prevent shoulder dislocation
Scapulae shoulder blade, triangular and commonly called wings flattened body and two important processes, the acromion and the caracoid process, loosely held onto the trunk of the body by muscles, able to slide/move on thoracic rib cage, glenoid cavity
Three borders and Three angles of the scupla superior, medial (vertebral) and lateral (axillary), superior, inferior, lateral
Acromion enlarged end of the spine of the scapula, connects with the clavicle laterally at the acromioclavicular joint
Coracoid process beaklike, points over the top of the shoulder and anchors some of the muscles of the arm
Suprascapular notch medial to the coracoid process, serves as a nerve passageway
Glenoid cavity shallow socket that receives the head of the arm bone, in the lateral angle
Shoulder girdle & humerus joint joint of body with the most freedom of movement
Sternoclavicular (SC) joint joint between the sternum and the clavicle, Only point where shoulder girdle attaches to axial skeleton (connect clavicle to sternum),
Acromioclavicular Joint joint where the acromion and clavicle connect, Move shoulders up and down, back and forth, Shoulder joint is highly flexible (lot of range of motion), Very shallow depth but easily dislocated
Sit of separated shoulder injury Acromioclavicular joint
Bones of Upper Limb thirty separate bones including arm, forearm, hand,
Arm single bone called the humerus
Humerus typical long bone, rounded head fits into the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula, Head, two bony projections, greater and lesser tubercles, surgical neck, deltoid tuberosity, radial groove, medial trochlea, capitulum
Processes that articulate with the forearm trochlea, capitulum
Greater and lesser tubercles site of muscle attachment
Deltoid tuberosity large fleshy deltoid muscle of the shoulder attaches
Forearm two bones, Radius & Ulna, radius is lateral to the ulna in anatomical position
Which forearm bone is lateral, which is medial radius is lateral (thumbside), ulna is medial
How are the radius and ulna spatially oriented Radius and Ulna are parallel
Which bone (radius or ulna) rotates over the other Radius rotates over ulna (ulna stays stationary, radius moves)
What connects the radius and ulna the interosseous membrane
Radial tuberosity place where tendon of the biceps muscle attaches
# of Hand bones 27 bones
Hand consists of what bones and how many of each carpal bones (8 bones), metacarpals (5 bones), phalanges (14 bones)
Carpal bones short bones, two irregular rows of four bones each, counted lateral to medial (thumb to pinkie), proximal followed by distal, scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Some Lions try pouncing that tigers can’t handle Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Carpus the wrist
Metacarpals long ones, in the hand, all digits have a metacarpal, Pinkie finger
Phalanges (how many in each finger) digits, all fingers have 3 phalanges, thumb has 2, proximal, middle, distal (in order from inside out)
Thumb also called pollex, #1 in numbering, only has proximal and distal phalanges
Pelvic Girdle formed by 2 coxal (hip) bones and sacrum, Large and heavy bones, Attach securely to axial skeleton at the lowermost lumbar vertebra, Deep heavy sockets for hip joint, Contain and protect reproductive organs, urinary bladder and portions of large intestine
Sacral Illiac SI Joint joint where sacrum and ilium connect
Bony pelvis 2 coxal bones + sacrum and coccyx, All weight of upper body rests on bony pelvis
Coxal Bone/Ossa Coxae acetabulum, ilium, ishium, pubis
Acetabulum the fusion of all three bones and forms deep socket of the hip, receives the head of the thigh bone
Ilium place you put your hands on your hip, large flaring bone that forms most of the hip
Ischium Bone you sit on, most inferior part of the coxal bone
Greater sciatic notchi bone marking in the ishium that allows blood vessels and large sciatic nerve to pass from the pelvis posteriorly into the thigh
Pubis Most anterior portion of pelvis (come together at front),
Where is the female pelvis different from male ilia, sacrum, outlet, ishial spines, pubic arch
Female pelvis is larger and more circular, shallower, lighter and thinner
Female ilia flare more laterally
Female sacrum is shorter and less curved than male
Female outlet larger than male’s
Female ischial spines are shorter and further apart compared to males, superior to the tuberosity, narrows the outlet of the pelvis
Female pubic arch more rounded and the angle of the pubic arch is wider (male = acute/sharp angle)
**Male = more straight up and down, cylinder type longer sacrum
**female = flared open, process = shorter and blunted
Bones of Lower Limb Carry our total body weight, thicker and stronger than upper limb bones, thigh leg and foot,
Femur Thigh, heaviest and Strongest bone of the body
Leg Tibia and Fibula, both make up the ankle bone, tibia medial, fibula lateral,
Tibia (shinbone) medial and forms medial ankle bone at distal end
Fibula lateral and forms lateral ankle bone at distal end
What bones, and # of bones in the Foot 26 bones, 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
Bones of Foot Supports body weight, Propels us forward in walking/running, Most weight on talus and calcaneus
Talus bone on top, only bone connected to tibia
Great toe name and numbered (hallux) = 1
Pinkie toe is what number = 5
All digits have what bones metatarsal (long bones)
All toes have how many phalanges 3 phalanges, great toe has 2
3 arches of foot Transverse and 2 longitudinal, lateral and medial
Transverse arch under heads of metatarsals, perpendicular to longitudinal arch
longitudinal arch medial and lateral
Calcaneus heel bone
Talus only bone that directly contact the distal end of tibia
Which bones carry most of the body’s weight Calcaneus and talus carry most of body’s weight
Created by: alechsu



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