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Anatomy Chapter 1-5

Anatomy is the study of body structure, which include size, shape, composition and perhaps even coloration.
Physiology is the study of how the body functions
Pathophysiology is the study of disorders of functioning.
Inorganic chemicals are usually simple molecules made of one or two elements other than carbon (with a few exceptions).
Organic chemicals are often very complex and always contain the elements carbon and hydrogen.
Cells are the smallest living units of structure and function.
Tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function.
Epithelial tissue cover or line body surfaces; some are capable of producing secretions with specific functions.
Connective tissues connect and support parts of the body; some transport or store materials.
Muscle tissues specialized for contraction, which brings about movement.
Nerve tissues specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that regulate body functions.
Organ A group of tissues precisely arranged so s to accomplish specific functions.
An organ may be considered a "cooperation of tissues."
Organ system A group of organs that all contribute to a particular function.
Metabolism All of the chemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body.
Metabolic rate Used to to mean the speed at which the body produces energy and heat, or, put another way, energy production per unit of time, such as 24 hours.
Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable metabolism and to function normally despite many constant changes.
Negative feedback mechanism in which the body's response reverses the stimulus (in effect, turning it off for a while).
Positive feedback mechanism in which the response to the stimulus does not stop or reverse the stimulus, but instead keeps the sequence of events going.
Pulmonary refers to the lungs
Femoral refers to the thigh
Brachial refers to the upper arm
The two major cavities are the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity
The dorsal cavity is continuous
Organs in the abdominal cavity includes the liver, stomach and intestines
The peritoneum is the membrane that lines the entire abdominal wall
The mesentery is the continuation of the peritoneum
Frontal (coronal) section a plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions
Sagittal section a plane from front to back separates the body into right and left portions.
Midsagittal section creates equal right and left halves
Cross-section A plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ
Longitudinal section A plane along the long axis of an organ
Transverse section A horizontal plane separates the body (or a part) into upper and lower portions
Quadrants A transverse plane and a midsagittal plane that cross at the umbilicus divide the abdomen into four quadrants
Disulfide bond is a covalent bond formed between two atoms of sulfur, usually within the same large protein molecule.
A hydrogen bond does not involve the sharing or exchange of electrons, but rather results because of a property of hydrogen atoms.
In a synthesis reaction bonds are formed to join two or more atoms or molecules to make a new compound.
In a decomposition reaction bonds are broken and a large molecule is changed to two more more smaller ones
Water is a s______ solvent
Water is a l______ lubricant
Water changes temperature _________ slowly
Intracellular fluid (ICF) The water within cells; about 65% of the total body water
Extracellular fluid (ECF) All the rest of the water in the body; about 35% of the total body water.
Plasma water found in blood vessels
Lymph Water found in lymphatic vessels
Tissue fluid or interstitial fluid Water found in the small spaces between cells
Specialized fluids synovial fluid in joints, cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord, aqueous humor in the eye, and the others.
Oxygen makes up ______ of the atmosphere we breathe. 21%
Acidosis When carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood.
Cell respiration is the name for energy production within cells and involves both respiratory gases, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
Cell respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + heat
Trace elements are elements that are needed in the body in very small amounts
An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a water solution.
A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions ,which, in the case of water, has the same effect as increasing the concentration of hydroxyl ions (OH-)
Buffer system A chemical or pair of chemicals that minimizes changes in pH by reacting with strong acids or strong bases to transform them into substances that will not drastically change pH.
Carbohydrates Sources of energy in cell respiration,
All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Monosaccharides Single-sugar compounds,the simplest sugars
Glucose is a hexose, a six-carbon sugar, with formula C6H1206
Pentose is a five-carbon sugar
Disaccharides Double sugars, made of two monosaccharides linked by a covalent bond.
Antigens are chemical markers that identify cells.
Ogliosaccharides consist of from 3 to 20 monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides are made of thousands of glucose molecules, bonded in different ways, resulting in different shapes.
Starches are branched chains of glucose and are produced by plant cells to store energy.
Glycogen is a highly branched chain of glucose molecules, is our own storage form for glucose.
Celulose is a nearly straight chain of glucose molecules produced by plant cells as part of their cells walls.
Lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; some also contain phosphorus.
True fats are made of one molecule of glycerol and one ,two, or three fatty acid molecules.
Triglyceride Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol.
Diglyceride Two fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol.
Monoglyceride One fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol.
Atherosclerosis the abnormal cholesterol deposits in the lining that may clog arteries, especially the coronary arteries of the heart.
Phosopholipids Diglycerides with a phosphate group (PO4) in the third bonding site of glycerol.
Cholesterol is an important steroid. It is made of four rings of carbon and hydrogen (not fatty acids an glycerol).
Proteins are made of smaller units called amino acids
Peptide bonds The bond between two amino acids
Polypeptide A short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Enzymes are catalysts
Denatured enzyme An enzyme that has lost its shape.
Nucleolus A small sphere made of DNA, RNA and protein
Cytoplasm A watery solution of minerals, gases, organic molecules and cell organelles that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Cytosol The water portion of cytoplasm
Organelles Intracellular structures that have specific functions in cellular metabolism.
Endoplasmic reticulum An extensive network of membranous tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane.
Ribosomes Very small structures made of protein and ribosomal RNA.
Proteasome A barrel-shaped organelle made of enzymes that cut protein molecules apart.
Adducting Moving towards the midline of the body
Abbducting Moving away from the midline of the body.
The Golgi apparatus' tasks are secretion, synthesizing carbohydrates and packing them.
Inversion Turning something in
Eversion Turning something out
Mitochondria oval or spherical organelles bounded by a double membrane that produce energy
Lysosomes Single-membrane structures that contain digestive enzymes.
Microvilli the folds of the cell membrane on the free surface of a cell.
Diffusion The movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
Osmosis The diffusion or water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Facilitated diffusion Molecules moving through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration, by means of some transporter cells.
Pathogen A disease-causing organism
Active transport requires less energy of ATP to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of great concentration.
Blood pressure is created by the pumping of the heart
Endocytosis to take into a cell
Phagocytosis A moving cell engulfs something
Pinocytosis A stationary cells engulfs something
Isotonic solution A solution with the same salt concentration as in cells.
Hypotonic solution A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells.
Hypertonic solution A solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells.
The stages of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
Stem cell An unspecialized cell that may develop into several different kinds of cells
Apoptosis The self-destruction or programmed cell death.
Meiosis a more complex process of cell division that results in the formation of gametes, which are egg and sperm cells.
Oogenesis The meiosis that takes place in the ovaries.
Spermatogenesis The meiosis that takes plae in the testes.
What is the body's pH range? 7.38-7.42 pH
Epithelial tissues Tissues found on surfaces as either coverings (outer surfaces) or linins (inner surfaces).
Squamous cells are flat
Cuboidal cells are cube shaped
Columnar cells are tall and narrow
Simple means a single layer of cells
Stratified means many layers of cells are present
Transitional epithelium A type of stratified epithelium in which the surface cells change shape from round to squamous.
Glandular epithelium Epithelium whose job is to secrete.
Columnar cells are specialized for secretion and absportion.
Ciliated epithelium has _____ on its free surfaces cilia
Glands Cells or organs that secret something
Unicellular means one cell.
Goblet cells Cells found in the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts
Exocrine gland Have ducts to take the secretion away from the gland
Endocrine glands Are ductless glands
Matrix Structural network or solution of non-living intercellular material.
The matrix of the blood is plasma
How much plasma is there in the blood? 52% to 62%
Hemopoietic tissue blood forming tissue
Blood cells are produced from stem cells in red bone marrow
Red blood cells carry oxygen bonded to the iron in their hemoglobin
White blood cells destroy pathogen by phagocytosis
Platelets prevent blood loss
Fibroblasts cells of areolar connective tissue
Blast cell A producing cell
Collagen fibers are very strong
Elastin fibers are elastic
Fibroblats are able to migrate to sites of damage and produce these protein fiber as part of the repair process.
Anatomy is structure
Physiology is function
Adipocytes The cells in both white adipose tissue and brown fat.
Thermogenic means heat generating
Fibrous connective tissue consists mainly of parallel collagen fibers with a few fibroblasts scattered among them
Elsatic connective tissue is primarily elastin fibers
Osteocytes Bone cells
Protein-carbohydrate cartilage does not contain calcium salts
Muscle tissue is specialized for contraction
Myocytes muscle cells
There are three type of muscle tissue skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Skeletal muscle is also called striated muscle or voluntary muscle
Smooth muscle is also called involuntary muscle or visceral muscle
Cardiac muscle heart muscle
Intercalated discs permit electrical impulses to pass swiftly from cell to cell.
Myocardium All of the heart muscle
Nerve tissue consists of neurons
Axon The process that carries impulses away from a neuron
Dendrite The process that carries impulses towards a neuron
Synapse The small space between neurons
Neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit the impulses of neurons
membranes Sheets of tissue that cover or line surfaces or that separate organs or parts (lobes) of organs from one another.
Serous membranes sheets of simple squamous epithelium that line some closed body cavities and cover the organs in these cavities.
Pleural membranes Serous membranes of teh thoracic cavity
Parietal pleura lines the chest wall
Visceral pleura covers the lungs
Pleural membranes secrete serous fluid
Parietal pericardium lines teh fibrous pericardium
epicardium is ont eh surface of the hear muscle
Peritoneum The serous membrane that lines the cavity
Mesentery is folder over and covers the abdominal organs
Mucous membranes line the body tracts (systems) that have openings to the environment
Mucus keeps the lining epithelial cells wet
The epidermis is made of stratified squamous keratinizing epithelial tissue
Keratinocytes The cells most abundant in the skin
Stratum germinativum the base of the epidermis, the innermost layer in which mitosis takes place
Defensins Antimicrobial peptides that living keratinocytes are able to synthesize
Stratum corneum The outermost epidermal layer
First degree burn Only the superficial epidermis is burned
Second degree burn Deeper layers of the epidermis are affected. The burn also inflames.
Third degree burn The entire epidermis is charred or burned way
Fourth degree burn The burn has reached the underlying muscle tissue or bone
Langerhans cells Phagocytize foreign materials
Melanocytes produce melanin
Papillary layer the uneven junction of the dermis with the epidermis.
Pilomotor The muscle that moves hair
Free nerve endings receive heat, cold and itch
Encapsulate nerve ending receive touch and pressure
Glands are made of epithelial tissue
Sebaceous glands secrete sebum
Ceruminous glands secrete ear wax
Apocrine glands Sweat glands in the underarm and genital areas
Eccrine glands Sweat glands found everywhere, but numerous on the forehead, upper lip, palms and soles.
Arterioles small arteries
Vasodilation The dilating of arterioles
Vasoconstriction The constricting of arterioles
Mast cells produce histamine, luekotrienes and other chemicals that help bring about inflammation
As you age, the layers of skin become thinner and more fragile and wrinkled as collagen and elastin fibers deteriorate
Alopecia the marked loss of hair
Created by: akikoandpoog