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More Chapter 7 Terms

Vocabulary-Pathology-Dx & Therapeutic Procedures-Pharmacology-Abbreviations

asphyxia Lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness & death if not corrected immediately. Also called asphyxiation or suffocation. Common causes include drowning, foreign body in the respiratory tract, poisoning, & electric shock.
aspiration Withdrawing fluid from a body cavity using suction(using a needle & syringe to withdraw fluid from the pleural cavity or a vacuum pump to remove phlegm from airways). Also refers to inhaling food/liquid/an object into airways, which may cause pneumonia.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration Abnormal breathing pattern in which there are long periods of apnea followed by a deeper, more rapid breathing.
clubbing Abnormal widening & thickening of the ends of the fingers & toes associated with chronic oxygen deficiency. Seen in patients with chronic respiratory conditions or circulatory problems
cyanosis refers to the bluish tint of skin that is receiving an insufficient amount of oxygen or circulation.
epistaxis nosebleed
hemoptysis To cough up blood or blood-stained sputum.
hyperventilation To breathe both too fast (tachypnea) and too deep (hyperpnea)
hypoventilation To breath both too slow (bradypnea) and too shallow (hypopnea)
internal medicine Branch of medicine involving the diagnosis & treatment of diseases & conditions of internal organs such as the respiratory system. The physician is an internist.
nasal cannula Two-pronged plastic device for delivering oxygen into the nose; one prong is inserted into each naris
orthopnea Term to describe dyspnea that is worsened by lying flat.
otorhinolaryngology Branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the ear, nose, & throat. May also be referred to as otolaryngology. The physician is an otorhinolaryngologist.
patent open or unblocked, such as a patent airway
percussion use of the fingertips to tap on a surface to determine the condition beneath the surface. Determined in part by the feel of the surface as it is tapped & the sound generated.
phlegm Thick mucus secreted by the membranes that line the respiratory tract. When phlegm is coughed up, it is called sputum.
pleural rub Grating sound made when the 2 layers of the pleura rub together during respiration.Caused when 1 of the surfaces becomes thicker because of inflammation or other disease conditions.Can be felt when placing fingers on chest or heard through a stethoscope.
pulmonology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis & treatment of diseases & disorders of the respiratory system. Physician is a pulmonologist.
rales Abnormal cracking sound made during inspiration. Usually indicates presence of fluid or mucus in the airways.
respiratory therapy Allied health specialty that assists patients w/respiratory & cardiopulmonary disorders. Can include conducting pulmonary functions tests, monitoring oxygen & carbon dioxide levels in the blood, administering breathing treatments, & ventilator management.
rhonchi Somewhat musical sound during expiration, often found in asthma or infection. Caused by spasms of the bronchial tubes. Also called wheezing.
shortness of breath (SOB) Term used to indicate a patient is having difficulty breathing; also called dyspnea.
sputum mucus or phlegm that is coughed up from the lining of the respiratory tract.
stridor harsh, high-pitched, noisy breathing sound made when there’s an obstruction of the bronchus or larynx. Found in conditions such as croup.
thoracic surgery Branch of medicine involving diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the respiratory system by surgical means. Physician is a thoracic surgeon.
croup Acute respiratory condition found in infants & children that is characterized by a barking type of cough or stridor.
diphtheria Bacterial upper respiratory infection characterized by the formation of a thick membranous film across the throat & a high mortality rate. Rare now due to the DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) vaccine.
pertussis Commonly called whooping cough, due to the whoop sound made when coughing. An infectious bacterial disease of the upper respiratory system that children receive immunization against as part of their DPT shots.
asthma Disease caused by various conditions, like allergens, & resulting in constriction of the bronchial airways, dyspnea, coughing, & wheezing. Can cause violent spasms of bronchi but is generally not a life-threatening condition.
bronchiectasis Abnormal enlargement of bronchi; may be the result of a lung infection. This condition can be irreversible & result in the destruction of the bronchial walls. Major symptoms include coughing up a large amount of purulent sputum, rales, & hemoptysis.
bronchogenic carcinoma Malignant tumor originating in the bronchi. Usually associated with a history of cigarette smoking.
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, & hypoxemia. May follow trauma, pneumonia, or septic infections. Also called acute respiratory distress syndrome.
anthracosis Type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of coal dust in the lung. Also called black lung or miner’s lung
asbestosis The type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of asbestos fibers in the lungs. May lead to the development of lung cancer.
atelectasis Condition where alveoli in a portion of the lung collapse, preventing exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide.Caused by a variety of conditions, including pressure on the lung from a tumor or other object. Also can mean failure of a newborn’s lungs to expand.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Progressive, chronic & usually irreversible group of conditions, like emphysema, in which the lungs have a diminished capacity for inspiration (inhalation) & expiration (exhalation). The person may have dyspnea upon exertion & a cough.
cystic fibrosis (CF) Hereditary condition causing the exocrine glands to malfunction. Patient produces a very thick mucus that causes severe congestion within the lungs & digestive system.
emphysema Pulmonary condition characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli, resulting in fewer overexpanded air sacs. Can occur from long-term heavy smoking. Air pollution worsens emphysema. Patient may only able to breathe while sitting or standing.
histoplasmosis pulmonary infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, found in dust and in the droppings of pigeons and chickens.
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) Lung condition most commonly found in premature infants caused by lack of surfactant needed to keep lungs inflated. Symptoms incl. tachypnea & respiratory grunting. Also called hyaline membrane disease(HMD)& respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn.
influenza Viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue. Commonly called the flu.
Legionnaire’s Disease Severe, often fatal bacterial infection characterized by pneumonia and liver and kidney damage. Named after people who came down with it at an American Legion convention in 1976.
Mycoplasma pneumonia A less severe but longer lasting form of pneumonia caused by the Mycoplasma pneumonia bacteria. Also called walking pneumonia.
pneumoconiosis condition that is the result of inhaling environmental particles that become toxic. Can be the result of inhaling coal dust (anthracosis) or asbestos (asbestosis).
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumonia with a nonproductive cough, very little fever, and dyspnea caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. An opportunistic infection often seen in those with weakened immune systems, such as AIDS patients.
pneumonia Inflammatory condition of the lung that can be caused by bacterial and viral infections, diseases, and chemicals. Results in the filling of the alveoli and the air spaces with fluid.
pulmonary edema Condition in which lung tissue retains an excessive amount of fluid, especially in the alveoli. Results in dyspnea.
pulmonary embolism Blood clot or air bubble in the pulmonary artery or one of its branches. Many cause an infarct in the lung tissue.
pulmonary fibrosis formation of fibrous scar tissue in the lungs leads to decreased ability to expand the lungs. May be caused by infections, pneumoconiosis, autoimmune disease, and toxin exposure.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea; high fatality rate. First appeared in China in 2003.
silicosis A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the inhalation of silica (quartz) dust found in quarrying, glass works, sand blasting, and ceramics
sleep apnea Condition in which breathing stops repeatedly during sleep long enough to cause a drop in oxygen levels in the blood
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant under one year of age. The child suddenly stops breathing for unknown reasons.
tuberculosis (TB) Infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Causes inflammation & calcification in the lungs. TB is on the increase & seen in many patients w/weakened immune systems. Multidrug resistant TB is a very dangerous form.
empyema pus within the pleural space usually associated with a bacterial infection. Also called pyothorax
pleural effusion Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity preventing lungs from fully expanding. Physicians can detect the presence of fluid by tapping the chest (percussion) or listening with a stethoscope (auscultation)
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura characterized by sharp chest pain with each breath. Also called pleuritis.
pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity, which may result in collapse of the lung.
arterial blood gases Testing for the gases present in the blood. Generally used to assist in determining the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
sputum culture and sensitivity testing sputum by placing it on a culture medium and observing and bacterial growth. The specimen is then tested to determine antibiotic effectiveness.
sputum cytology examining sputum for malignant cells.
bronchography X-ray of the lung after a radiopaque substance has been inserted into the trachea or bronchial tube. Resulting x-ray is a called a bronchogram
chest x-ray taking a radiographic picture of the lungs and heart from the back and sides
pulmonary angiography injecting dye into a blood vessel for the purpose of taking an x-ray of the arteries and veins of the lungs
ventilation perfusion scan nuclear medicine diagnostic test especially useful in identifying pulmonary emboli. Radioactive air is inhaled to determine if air is filling the entire lung. Radioactive intravenous injection shows whether blood is flowing to all parts of the lung.
bronchoscopy (bronch) visual examination of the inside of the bronchi; uses an instrument called a bronchoscope
laryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx with a lighted instrument called a laryngoscope
oximetry measures the oxygen level in the blood using a device, an oximeter, placed on the patient’s fingertip or ear lobe
pulmonary function test (PFT) a group of diagnostic tests that give information regarding air flow in and out of the lungs, lung volumes, and gas exchange between the lungs and bloodstream
spirometry procedure to measure lung capacity using a spirometer
polysomnography monitoring a patient while sleeping to identify sleep apnea. Also called sleep apnea study
sweat test a test for cystic fibrosis. Patients with this disease have an abnormally large amount of salt in their sweat
tuberculin skin test (TB test) applying a tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) under the surface of the skin to determine if the patient has been exposed to tuberculosis. Also called a tine or mantoux test.
aerosol therapy medication suspended in a mist that is intended to be inhaled. Delivered by a nebulizer, which delivers the mist for a period of time while the patient breathes, or a metered dose inhaler (MDI), which delivers a single puff of mist.
endotracheal intubation placing a tube through the mouth, through the glottis, and into the trachea to create a patent airway.
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) method for assisting patients in breathing using a mask that is connected to a machine that produces an increased positive thoracic pressure
postural drainage drainage of secretions from the bronchi by placing the patient in a position that uses gravity to promote drainage. Used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis
supplemental oxygen therapy providing a patient with additional concentration of oxygen to improve oxygen levels in the bloodstream. Oxygen may be provided by a mask or nasal cannula.
ventilator a machine that provides artificial ventilation for a patient unable to breathe on his or her own. Also called a respirator
thoracentesis surgical puncture of the chest wall for the removal of fluids. Also called thoracocentesis
thoracostomy insertion of a tube into the chest for the purpose of draining off fluid or air. Also called a chest tube
tracheostomy a surgical procedure often performed in an emergency that creates an opening directly into the trachea to allow a patient to breathe easier; also called tracheotomy
cardiopulmonary resuscitation emergency treatment provided by persons trained in CPR and given to patients when their respirations and heart stop. CPR provides oxygen to the brain, heart, and other vital organs until medical treatment can restore a normal heart and pulmonary function
Heimlich maneuver technique for removing a foreign body from trachea or pharynx by exerting diaphragmatic pressure. Named for Harry Heimlich, a US thoracic surgeon.
antibiotic kills bacteria causing respiratory infections
antihistamine blocks the effects of histamine that has been released by the body during an allergy attack
antitussive relieves the urge to cough
bronchodilator relaxes muscle spasms in bronchial tubes. Used to treat asthma
corticosteroids reduces inflammation and swelling in the respiratory track
decongestant reduces stuffiness and congestion throughout the respiratory system
expectorant improves the ability to cough up mucus from the respiratory tract
mucolytic liquefies mucus so it easier to cough and clear it from the respiratory tract
ABGs arterial blood gases
ARDS adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome
Bronch bronchoscopy
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
C&S culture and sensitivity
CTA clear to auscultation
CXR chest x-ray
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus injection
ENT ear, nose, and throat
ERV expiratory reserve volume
FRC functional residual capacity
HMD hyaline membrane disease
IC inspiratory capacity
IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome
IRV inspiratory reserve volume
LLL left lower lobe
LUL left upper lobe
MDI metered dose inhaler
O2 oxygen
PCP pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PFT pulmonary function test
PPD purified protein derivative
R respiration
RA room air
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
RLL right lower lobe
RML right middle lobe
RRT registered respiratory therapist
RV reserve volume
RUL right upper lobe
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
TB tuberculosis
TLC total lung capacity
TPR temperature, pulse, and respiration
TV tidal volume
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
Created by: AltheaMathews