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Chapter 4

Skin and Body Membranes

Stratum Basale Lies closest to the dermis and contains epidermal cells that receive the most adequate nourishment from the dermis.
Stratum Spinosum Thickest layer and made from cells in the basale layer.
Stratum Granulosum Cells become flatter and more full of keratin.
Stratum Lucidum Dead kerantinized cells and is found where skin is hairless and thick.
Stratum Corneum 20 to 30 cell layers thick. Completely filled with keratin and called cornified cells.
Define Epidermis and name the five zones. It is the top layer of skin and is avascular. Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum and Stratum Corneum.
Melanocytes Found in the stratum basale. Produces melanin; which determines your skin color.
Define dermis and name the two major regions. Strong stretch covering that helps hold the body together. Papillary Layer and Reticular Layer.
Papillary Layer The upper dermal region, uneven and has fingerlike projections from its superior surface called dermal papillae.
Reticular Layer Deepest skin layer, contains sweat and oil glands. Phagocytes are found here. Has deep pressure receptors - Pacinian Corpuscles.
Kertinocytes Keratin cells - produce keratin - proteins that make the epidermis very hard.
Phagocytes Eat bacteria that enter skin through a wound.
What are body membranes and what are the two types? Body membranes cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form protective sheets around organs. The two types are epithelial and connective tissue membranes.
Epithelial Membranes Include cutaneous, mucous and serous membranes. They cover and line surface areas.
Cutaneous Membrane Skin. Top - Epidermis ; Bottom - Dermis. The only dry membrane.
Mucous Membrane Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior. ; Epithelium that rests on loose connective tissue membrane called lamina propria. ; Wet membrane.
Serous Membrane Lines all body cavities that close to the exterior. ; A layer of simple squamous epithelium. ; Occurs in pairs of layers - parietal and visceral.
Connective Tissue Membranes Includes synovial membrane. Cushions and provides lubrication.
Synovial Membrane Lining fibrous capsules that line joints. ; Soft aerolar connective tissue. ; Cushions.
What are some key functions of skin? Protection and covering, insulation, and cushioning.
What is the integumentary system comprised of? Skin, sweat and oil glands, hair, and nails.
Keratin Cornified(hardened) layer that prevents water loss.
Cutaneous Sensory Receptors Part of the nervous sytem - able to sense touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
What two tissues is skin made of? Epidermis and Dermis.
Which epidermal layer receives the most nutrients? Stratum basale. ; via diffusion of nutrients from the dermis. These cells are constantly undergoing cell divison.
Dermal Papillae - types of receptors and what they do. They indent the epidermis above. Receptors: Capillaries which give epidermis nutrients. ; Pain receptors (free nerve endings) ; Touch receptors (Meissner's Corupuscles)
What creates fingerprints? Papillae. Well provided with sweat pores and leave films of sweat.
What are the three pigments that contribute to skin color? 1) Amount and kinf of melanin in epidermis. 2) Amount of carotene deposited in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous layer. 3) The amount of oxygen-rich hemoglobin in the dermal blood vessels.
What are skin appendages? Cutaneous glands, hair, hair follices and nails.
What are the two groups of cutaneous glands? Sebasceous glands (oil glands) and Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands).
Sebaceous Glands Oil glands. ; All over except palms of hands and soles of feet. Attached to a hair follicle. ; Sebum - lubricates the skin and keeps it soft and moist.
Eccrine Sweat Glands Found all over the body and not associated with hair. ; Sweat - stops growth for bacteria.
Apocrine Sweat Glands Axillary and genital areas. Associated with hair. ; Sweat + fatty acids + proteins - thermoregulation, activated during pain, stress, and sexual foreplay.
What is the purpose of hair? To protect.
Hair Follicle Produced hair. Flexible, epithelial structure.
Epidermal Sheath Forms hair.
Dermal Sheath Supplies blood.
Papilla At the root of a hair.
Root Part of the hair enclosed in the follicle.
Shaft Part coming out from the surface of the skin.
Matrix/growth zone Where cells for hair are made. (Hair Bulb)
Medulla Central core of hair.
Cortex Layer outside of Medulla.
Cuticle Surrounds the cortex. Single layer of cells that overlap.
Arrector Pilli Small bands of smooth muscle cells that connect to each side of the hair follice.
What is a nail? Scalelike modification of the epidermis.
Nail Bed Stratum basale that extends beneath the nail.
Nail Matrix Thickened area responsible for nail growth.
Lunula White, crescent part of nail.
Created by: isohal



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