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A &P - Chap 3

cell structural unit of all living things
cell theory (4) 1. structural unit of life 2. organism is dependent on its cells 3. principle of complementarity 4. continuity of life has a cellular basis
principle of complementarity cell activity is made possible by subcellular structures
3 functions of plasma membrane transporting things across membrane, interacting with other cells, generation and maintenance of a resting membrane potential
fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid bilayer of phospholipids and protein molecules
integral proteins, function? firmly inserted in lipid bilayer, transmembrane proteins
glycolipids externally facing lipid molecules attached to sugar groups
peripheral proteins not embedded in lipids, usually appended to exposed parts of integral proteins
glycocalex sticky area at cell surface
microvilli fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane that project from cell surface
tight junctions, how permeable? protein molecules in adjacent cell membranes fuse together like a zipper, impermeable
desmosomes, held together by what? mechanical couplings along the sides of adjacent cells to prevent their separation, held together by glycoprotein filaments
gap junctions function? to allow direct passage of substances between cels
by what are cells connected in gap junctions? connexons (transmembrane proteins)
interstitial fluid extracellular fluid constantly bathing our cells
selectively permeable allows some substances to pass through but not all
diffusion tendency of molecules or ions to scatter themselves evenly throughout an environment
concentration gradient molecules diffuse down this, from greater to lower
osmosis diffusion of water
osmolarity the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
hydrostatic pressure pressure exerted by water against the membrane
osmotic pressure tendency to resist further water entry
tonicity ability of a solution to change the shape of cells by altering their internal water volume
isotonic normal
hypertonic leads to crenation
hypotonic leads to lyse
facilitated diffusion protein carrier molecules allow particles to pass membrane
filtration process by which water and solutes are forced through a body membrane by the hydrostatic pressure of blood
active transport (solute pumping) requires ATP
passive transport run by kinetic energy
solute pumps mediate active transport against thr concentration gradient
K+ intracellular
Na+ extracellular
sodium-potassium ATPase an ATP driven sodium-potassium pump that simultaneously moves both ions across membrane
2 types of bulk transport exocytosis, endocytosis
exocytosis substances are moved from interior to exterior
endocytosis substances are moved into the cell
3 types of endocytosis phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis cell eats solid material
phagosome membranous sac containing solid material eaten by cell
amoeboid motion the flowing of cytoplasm into temporary pseudopods
pinocytosis cell drinking
receptor mediated endocytosis receptors on membrane only bind with certain molecules
clathrin coats the receptor mediated endocytosis
membrane potential voltage
cell's resting membrane potential? -20 to -200 millivolts
all cells are said to be ______ polarized (cell is negative compared to environment)
cytosol viscous fluid of the cytoplasm
inclusions non functioning units inside the cell (ex: fat, glycogen granules)
2 functions of mitochondria site of ATP synthase, powerhouse of cell
1 function of ribosomes sites of protein synthesis
2 functions of rough ER proteins are bound in vesicles for transport to golgi, external synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol
smooth ER is site of 3 things? lipid/steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism, drug detoxification
1 function of lysosomes site of intracellular digestion
1 function of peroxisomes enzymes detoxify toxic substances
microfilaments, size and made of? fine filaments, protein actin
intermediate filaments, what kind of fibers and composition? protein fibers, composition varies
microtubules structure & made of? cylindrical structures made of tubulin proteins
2 functions of centrioles forms mitotic spindle and asters, bases of cillia and flagella
1 function of cillia movement
1 function of flagella movement
3 functions of nucleus control center, transmits genetic information, provides instruction for protein synthesis
1 function of nucleoli site of ribosome manufacture
2 functions of nuclear membrane separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm, regulates passage of substances to and from nucleus
1 function of chromatin, composed of 2 things? DNA constitutes the genes, DNA and histone proteins
secretory vesicles discharge by exocytosis
basal bodies centrioles forming the bases of cillia and flagella
nucleoplasm colloidal fluid that holds chromatin and nucleoli
nucleosomes spherical clusters of 8 histones connected by a DNA molecule
4 cell life cycle stages? G1 - S - G2 - Mitosis
G1 (growth 1) rapid growth and metabolic activity
which 3 cell life cycles are interphase? G1 - S - G2
interphase is... total period from cell formation to cell division
S (synthetic) growth and DNA replication
G2 (growth 2) enzymes and proteins needed for division are synthesized and moved to their positions
semiconservative replication (3 things) 2 DNA molecules are formed, are original to the original DNA helix, and each contains 1 new and 1 old nucleotide strand
order of M phase (5 steps) prophase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase - cytokinesis
mitosis parcel out replicated DNA of mother cell into 2 daughter cells
cleavage furrow, 2 types of microfilaments during cytokinesis, actin and myosin
benign neoplasm local tumor
malignant neoplasms cancerous cells
metastasis ability to break from mother tumor and travel to other body organs
early prophase (1) chromatin threads become chromosomes
late prophase (3) mitotic spindle forms, spindle attaches to kinetochores, nuclear membrane dissolves
metaphase (1) chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate
anaphase (2) centromeres are split, chromosomes split
telophase (3) chromosomes go back to threadlike chromatin, nuclear membranes form, mitotic spindle dissolves
triplet a "word" that specifies a specific amino acid
genetic code rules by which base sequence of a DNA gene are translated into protein structure
protein structure = amino acid sequence
rRNA forms part of the ribosomes
mRNA (3 steps) forms "half DNA molecules" (codons), leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome, translation begins
tRNA (3 steps) becomes aminoacyl-tRNA, bonds via anticodon to mRNA codon sequence on ribosome, is released and ready to be recharged
transcription occurs... inside nucleus
translation occurs... cytoplasm
codon corresponding 3 base sequence on mRNA to a triplet
transcription transfer of info from DNA to mRNA
translation base sequences are translated into amino acid sequences
anticodon 3 base sequence on tRNA complementary to mRNA codon
hyperplasia accelerated growth
atrophy a decrease in size of an organ or body tissue
Created by: ngrable



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