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Human Structure Wk 1

QuestionAnswer
trapezius- O O- external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, ligamentum nuchae, spines of C7 - T12v
trapezius- I I- spine of scapula, acromion, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
trapezius- N N- spinal accessory nerve, C3 - C4
trapezius- A A- adducts, rotates, elevates, depresses scapula
levator scapulae- O O- transverse processes of C1 - C4
levator scapulae-I I- medial border of scapula
levator scapulae- A A- elevates scapula, rotates glenoid cavity
levator scapulae- N N- C3 - C4 nerves to levator scapulae, dorsal scapular nerve
rhomboid minor- O O- spines of C7 - T1
rhomboid minor- I I- root of spine of scapula
rhomboid minor- N N- dorsal scapular nerve, C5
rhomboid minor-A A- adducts scapula
rhomboid major- O O- spines of T2 - T5
rhomboid major- I I- medial border of scapula
rhomboid major- N N- dorsal scapular nerve, C5
rhomboid major- A A- adducts scapula
latissimus dorsi- O O- spines of T7 - T12, thoracodorsal fascia, iliac crest, ribs 9 - 12
latissimus dorsi- I I- floor of bicipital (intertubercular) groove of humerus
latissimus dorsi- N N- thoracodorsal
latissimus dorsi - A A- adducts, extends, rotates arm medially; depresses scapula
serratus posterior superior- o O- ligamentum nuchae, supraspinal ligament, spines of C7 - T3
serratus posterior superior- i I- upper border of ribs 2 - 5
serratus posterior superior- n N- intercostal nerve, T1 - T4
serratus posterior superior- A A- elevates ribs
serratus posterior inferior-o O- supraspinous ligament, spines of T11 - L3
serratus posterior inferior-i I- lower border of ribs 9 - 12
serratus posterior inferior-n N-intercostal nerve, T9 - T12
serratus posterior inferior-a A- depresses ribs
splenius capitis-o 0- spinous processes
splenius capitis-i I- mastoid process and superior nuchal line
splenius capitis-n N- dorsal primary rami of middle and lower cervical spinal nerves
splenius capitis-a A- extends, rotates, laterally flexes head and neck
splenius cervicis-o O- spinous processes
splenius cervicis-i I- transverse processes
splenius cervicis-n N- dorsal primary rami of middle and lower cervical spinal nerves
splenius cervicis-a A- extends, rotates, laterally flexes head and neck
iliocostalis (lateral column)-o O- sacrum, ilium, ribs, spinous processes of lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
iliocostalis (lateral column)-i I- ribs
iliocostalis (lateral column)-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
iliocostalis (lateral column)-a A- extend, rotate, laterally flex vertebral column and head
longissimus (intermediate column)-o O- sacrum, ilium, ribs, spinous processes of lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
longissimus (intermediate column)-i I- ribs, transverse processes, mastoid process
longissimus (intermediate column)-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
longissimus (intermediate column)-a A- extends, rotates, laterally flexes vertebral longissimus (intermediate column)
spinalis (medial column)-o O- sacrum, ilium, ribs, spinous processes of lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
spinalis (medial column)-i I- spinous processes
spinalis (medial column)-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
spinalis (medial column)-a A- extends, rotates, laterally flexes vertebral column and head
semispinalis-o O- transverse processes
semispinalis-i I- skull (capitis), spinous processes (cervicis, thoracis)
semispinalis-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
semispinalis-a A- extends and rotates head, neck, and trunk
multifidus-o O- sacrum, ilium, transverse processes
multifidus-i I- spinous processes
multifidus-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
multifidus-a A- extends and rotates head, neck, and trunk
rotators-o O- transverse processes
rotators-i I- spinous processes two vertebrae above (longus) or one vertebra above (brevis)
rotators-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
rotators-a A- extends and rotates head, neck, and trunk
interspinales-o O- spinous process
interspinales-i I- adjacent spinous process
interspinales-n N- dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
interspinales-a A- extends vertebral column
intertransversarii-o O- transverse process
intertransversarii-i I- adjacent transverse process
intertransversarii-n N-dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
intertransversarii-a A- laterally flexes vertebral column
levatores costarum (longus and brevis)-o O- transverse process
levatores costarum (longus and brevis)-i I- ribs
levatores costarum (longus and brevis)-n N-dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves
levatores costarum (longus and brevis)-a A- elevates ribs
rectus capitis posterior major-o O-spine of axis
rectus capitis posterior major-i I- lateral portion of inferior nuchal line
rectus capitis posterior major-n N- suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)
rectus capitis posterior major-a A- extends, rotates, flexes head laterally
rectus capitis posterior minor-o O- posterior tubercle of atlas
rectus capitis posterior minor-i I- occipital bone below inferior nuchal line
rectus capitis posterior minor-n N- suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)
rectus capitis posterior minor-a A- extends, flexes head laterally
obliquus capitis superior-o O- transverse process of atlas
obliquus capitis superior-i I- occipital bone above inferior nuchal line
obliquus capitis superior-n N- suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)
obliquus capitis superior-a A- extends, rotates, flexes head laterally
obliquus capitis inferior-o O- spine of axis
obliquus capitis inferior-i I- transverse process of atlas
obliquus capitis inferior-n N- suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)
obliquus capitis inferior-a A- extends, rotates head laterally
o- sternocleidomastoid o-manubrium sterni and medial 1/3 of clavicle mastoid
i-sternocleidomastoid i-process and lateral 1/2 of superior nuchal line
n-sternocleidomastoid n-spinal accessory nerve C3 - C4 (sensory)
a- sternocleidomastoid a-singly turns face toward opposite side, together flex head and raise thorax
What are the 3 respiratory MM of the back? Serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior, and levator costarum
o- posterior scalene o-transverse processes of C4 - C6;
i- posterior scalene i- outer surface of 2nd rib
n- posterior scalene n-lower cervical (C6 - C8);
a- posterior scalene a-elevates 2nd rib, bends neck;
Insertion- posterior scalene outer surface of 2nd rib
Insertion- middle scalene upper surface of 1st rib
Insertion- anterior scalene scalene tubercle of 1st rib
Insertion- posterior belly of omohyoid intermediate tendon
Insertion- platysma mandible and skin over mandible and angle of mouth
Insertion- pectoralis major lateral lip of intertubercular (bicipital) groove of humerus
Insertion- pectoralis minor coracoid process of scapula
Insertion- subclavius inferior surface of clavicle
Insertion- serratus anterior medial border of scapula
Insertion- deltoid deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Insertion- supraspinatus superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Insertion- infraspinatus middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Insertion- subscapularis lesser tubercle of humerus
Insertion- teres major medial lip of intertubercular (bicipital) groove of humerus
Insertion- teres minor lower facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Insertion- coracobrachialis middle third of medial surface of humerus
Insertion- biceps brachii radial tuberosity of radius
Insertion- brachialis coronoid process of ulna and ulnar tuberosity
Insertion- triceps posterior surface of olecranon process of ulna
Insertion- anconeus olecranon and upper posterior surface of ulna
Insertion- pronator teres middle of lateral side of radius
Insertion- flexor carpi radialis bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
Insertion- palmaris longus flexor retinaculum, palmar aponeurosis
Insertion- flexor carpi ulnaris pisiform, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal
Insertion- flexor digitorum superficialis middle phalanges of finger
Insertion- flexor digitorum profundus bases of distal phalanges of fingers
Insertion- flexor pollicis longus base of distal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- pronator quadratus anterior surface of distal radius
Insertion- brachioradialis base of radial styloid process
Insertion- extensor carpi radialis longus dorsum of base of 2nd metacarpal
Insertion- extensor carpi radialis brevis posterior base of 3rd metacarpal
Insertion- extensor digitorum extensor expansion, base of middle and digital phalanges
Insertion- extensor digiti minimi extensor expansion, base of middle and digital phalanges
Insertion- extensor carpi ulnaris base of 5th metacarpal
Insertion- supinator lateral side of upper part of radius
Insertion- abductor pollicis longus lateral surface of base of 1st metacarpal
Insertion- extensor pollicis longus base of distal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- extensor pollicis brevis base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- extensor indicis extensor expansion of index finger
Insertion- abductor pollicis brevis lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- flexor pollicis brevis base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- opponens pollicis lateral side of 1st metacarpal
Insertion- adductor pollicis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Insertion- palmaris brevis skin of medial side of palm
Insertion- abductor digiti minimi medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger
Insertion- flexor digiti minimi brevis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger
Insertion- opponens digiti minimi medial side of 5th metacarpal
Insertion- lumbricals (4) lateral side of extensor expansion
Insertion- dorsal interossei (4) lateral sides of bases of proximal phalanges, extensor expansion
Insertion- palmar interossei (3) bases of proximal phalanges in same sides as origins, extensor expansion
Origin- posterior scalene transverse processes of C4 - C6
Origin- middle scalene transverse processes of C2 - C7
Origin- anterior scalene transverse processes of C3 - C6
Origin- posterior belly of omohyoid medial lip of suprascapular notch and ligament
Origin- platysma superficial fascia over upper part of deltoid and pectoralis major
Origin- pectoralis major medial half of clavicle, manubrium and body of sternum, upper 6 costal cartilages
Origin- pectoralis minor 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs
Origin- subclavius junction of 1st rib and costal cartilage
Origin- serratus anterior upper 8 ribs
Origin- deltoid lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
Origin- supraspinatus supraspinatus fossa of scapula
Origin- infraspinatus infraspinatus fossa
Origin- subscapularis subscapular fossa
Origin- teres major dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula
Origin- teres minor upper portion of lateral border of scapula
Origin- coracobrachialis coracoid process
Origin- biceps brachii supraglenoid tubercle (long head), coracoid process (short head)
Origin- brachialis lower anterior surface of humerus
Origin- triceps infraglenoid tubercle (long head), superior to radial groove of humerus (lateral head), inferior to radial groove (medial head)
Origin- anconeus lateral epicondyle of humerus
Origin- pronator teres medial epicondyle, coronoid process of ulna
Origin- flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle of humerus
Origin- palmaris longus medial epicondyle of humerus
Origin- flexor carpi ulnaris medial epicondyle (humeral head), medial olecranon, posterior border of ulna (ulnar head)
Origin- flexor digitorum superficialis medial epicondyle, coronoid process, oblique line of radius
Origin- flexor digitorum profundus anteromedial surface of ulna, interosseous membrane
Origin- flexor pollicis longus anterior surface of radius, interosseous membrane, coronoid process
Origin- pronator quadratus anterior surface of distal ulna
Origin- brachioradialis lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Origin- extensor carpi radialis longus lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Origin- extensor carpi radialis brevis lateral epicondyle of humerus
Origin- extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle of humerus
Origin- extensor digiti minimi common extensor tendon, interosseous membrane
Origin- extensor carpi ulnaris lateral epicondyle and posterior surface of ulna
Origin- supinator lateral epicondyle, radial collateral and annular ligaments
Origin- abductor pollicis longus interosseous membrane, middle third of posterior surfaces of radius and ulna
Origin- extensor pollicis longus interosseous membrane, middle third of posterior surface of ulna
Origin- extensor pollicis brevis interosseous membrane, posterior surface of middle third of radius
Origin- extensor indicis posterior surface of ulna, interosseous membrane
Origin- abductor pollicis brevis flexor retinaculum, scaphoid, trapezium
Origin- flexor pollicis brevis flexor retinaculum, trapezium
Origin- opponens pollicis flexor retinaculum, trapezium
Origin- adductor pollicis capitate, bases of 2nd, 3rd metacarpals (oblique head); palmar surface of 3rd metacarpal (transverse head)
Origin- palmaris brevis medial side of flexor retinaculum, palmar aponeurosis
Origin- abductor digiti minimi pisiform, tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris
Origin- flexor digiti minimi brevis flexor retinaculum, hook of hamate
Origin- opponens digiti minimi flexor retinaculum, hook of hamate
Origin- lumbricals (4) lateral side of tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
Origin- dorsal interossei (4) adjacent sides of metacarpal bones
Origin- palmar interossei (3) medial side of 2nd metacarpal, lateral sides of 4th, 5th metacarpals
Innervation- posterior scalene lower cervical (C6 - C8)
Innervation- middle scalene lower cervical (C5 - C8)
Innervation- anterior scalene lower cervical (C5 - C8)
Innervation- posterior belly of omohyoid ansa cervicalis
Innervation- platysma facial
Innervation- pectoralis major lateral and medial pectorals
Innervation- pectoralis minor medial (and lateral) pectorals
Innervation- subclavius nerve to subclavius
Innervation- serratus anterior long thoracic
Innervation- deltoid axillary
Innervation- supraspinatus suprascapular
Innervation- infraspinatus suprascapular
Innervation- subscapularis upper and lower subscapular
Innervation- teres major lower subscapular
Innervation- teres minor axillary
Innervation- coracobrachialis musculocutaneous
Innervation- biceps brachii musculocutaneous
Innervation- brachialis musculocutaneous
Innervation- triceps radial
Innervation- anconeus radial
Innervation- pronator teres median
Innervation- flexor carpi radialis median
Innervation- palmaris longus median
Innervation- flexor carpi ulnaris ulnar
Innervation- flexor digitorum superficialis median
Innervation- flexor digitorum profundus ulnar and median
Innervation- flexor pollicis longus median
Innervation- pronator quadratus median
Innervation- brachioradialis radial
Innervation- extensor carpi radialis longus radial
Innervation- extensor carpi radialis brevis radial
Innervation- extensor digitorum radial
Innervation- extensor digiti minimi radial
Innervation- extensor carpi ulnaris radial
Innervation- supinator radial
Innervation- abductor pollicis longus radial
Innervation- extensor pollicis longus radial
Innervation- extensor pollicis brevis radial
Innervation- extensor indicis radial
Innervation- abductor pollicis brevis median
Innervation- flexor pollicis brevis median
Innervation- opponens pollicis median
Innervation- adductor pollicis ulnar
Innervation- palmaris brevis ulnar
Innervation- abductor digiti minimi ulnar
Innervation- flexor digiti minimi brevis ulnar
Innervation- opponens digiti minimi ulnar
Innervation- lumbricals (4) median (2 lateral), ulnar (2 medial)
Innervation- dorsal interossei (4) ulnar
Innervation- palmar interossei (3) ulnar
Action- posterior scalene elevates 2nd rib, bends neck
Action- middle scalene elevates 1st rib, bends neck
Action- anterior scalene elevates 1st rib, bends neck
Action- posterior belly of omohyoid depresses, retracts hyoid and larynx
Action- platysma depresses lower jaw and lip and angle of mouth, wrinkles skin of neck
Action- pectoralis major flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm
Action- pectoralis minor depresses scapula, elevates ribs
Action- subclavius depresses lateral part of clavicle
Action- serratus anterior rotates scapula upward, abducts arm and elevates it above the horizontal
Action- deltoid abducts, adducts, flexes, extends, rotates arm medially and laterally
Action- supraspinatus abducts arm
Action- infraspinatus rotates arm laterally
Action- subscapularis adducts, rotates arm medially
Action- teres major adducts, rotates arm medially
Action- teres minor rotates arm laterally
Action- coracobrachialis flexes, adducts arm
Action- biceps brachii flexes arm and forearm, supinates forearm
Action- brachialis flexes forearm
Action- triceps extends forearm
Action- anconeus extends forearm
Action- pronator teres pronates arm
Action- flexor carpi radialis flexes forearm, flexes and abducts hand
Action- palmaris longus flexes forearm and hand
Action- flexor carpi ulnaris flexes forearm, flexes and adducts hand
Action- flexor digitorum superficialis flexes proximal interphalangeal joints, flexes hand and forearm
Action- flexor digitorum profundus flexes distal interphalangeal joints and hand
Action- flexor pollicis longus flexes thumb
Action- pronator quadratus pronates forearm
Action- brachioradialis flexes forearm
Action- extensor carpi radialis longus extends, abducts hand
Action- extensor carpi radialis brevis extends and abducts hands
Action- extensor digitorum extends fingers and hand
Action- extensor digiti minimi extends little finger
Action- extensor carpi ulnaris extends, adducts hand
Action- supinator supinates forearm
Action- abductor pollicis longus abducts thumb and hand
Action- extensor pollicis longus extends distal phalanx of thumb, abducts hand
Action- extensor pollicis brevis extends proximal phalanx of thumb, abducts hand
Action- extensor indicis extends index finger
Action- abductor pollicis brevis abducts thumb
Action- flexor pollicis brevis flexes thumb
Action- opponens pollicis opposes thumb to other digits
Action- adductor pollicis adducts thumb
Action- palmaris brevis wrinkles skin on medial side of palm
Action- abductor digiti minimi abducts little finger
Action- flexor digiti minimi brevis flexes proximal phalanx of little finger
Action- opponens digiti minimi opposes little finger
Action- lumbricals (4) flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
Action- dorsal interossei (4) abducts fingers, flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
Action- palmar interossei (3) adduct fingers, flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
o-Cricothyroid O- Anterolateral part of cricoid cartilage
i-Cricothyroid I- Inferior margin and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
a-Cricothyroid A- Stertches and tenses the vocal folds
n-Cricothyroid N- Laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)
o-Sternohyoid O- Medial end of clavicle and manubrium of sternum
i-Sternohyoid I- Lower margin of body of hyoid bone
a-Sternohyoid A- Depresses hyoid bone if ithas been elevated, as in swallowing
n-Sternohyoid N- Cervical spinal nerves C1-C3 through the ansa cercicalis (slender nerve root in cervical plexus)
o-Sternothyroid O- Posterior surface of manubrium of sternum
i-Sternothyroid I- Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
a-Sternothyroid A- Depresses larynx
n-Sternothyroid N- Ansa Cervicaclis (C1-C3)
o-Thyrohoid O- Lamina of the thyroid cartilage at the oblique line
i-Thyrohoid I- greater cornu of hyoid bone
a-Thyrohoid A- Depresses hyoid and elevates larynx if hyoid is fixed
n-Thyrohoid N- First cervical nerve (C1) through the hypoglossal nerve (XII)
o-Stylohyoid O- Syloid process of temporal bone
i-Stylohyoid I- Body of hyoid bone at junction of greater cornu
a-Stylohyoid A- Elevates and retracts the hyoid elongating the floor of the mouth and lifts the tongue during swallowing
n-Stylohyoid N- Facial Nerve (VII)
o-Mylohyoid O- Mylohyoid line of mandible
i-Mylohyoid I- Upper border and median raphe of hyoid bone
a-Mylohyoid A- Elevates hyoid bone and raises floor of mouth and tongue
n-Mylohyoid N- Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (V)
o-Cricothyroid O- Anterolateral part of cricoid cartilage
i-Cricothyroid I- Inferior margin and inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
a-Cricothyroid A- Stertches and tenses the vocal folds
n-Cricothyroid N- Laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)
What causes Erb-Duchenne palsy, what nerve roots are involved , and what are the symptoms? injury to upper trunk , C5-C6, waiter's tip hand
What causes Klumpke's paralaysis? Which nerve roots are involved? And What are the symptoms? Caused by birth palsy, cervical rib, fracture of clavicle, abnormal insertion of anterior and middle scalene - all of which leads to lower trunk injury; C8 & T1, Claw hand
Which nerves are commonly injured in a radical mastectomy? long thoracic nerve and thoracodorsal nerve
What causes winged scapula? injury to long thoracic nerve during radical mastectomy
What causes Crutch palsy? And what is it's characteristic symptom? injury to post cord and wrist drop
If you broke your surgical neck of the humerus what might you injure and what would the symtom be? axillary nerve and maybe posterior circumflex humeral artery, and lateral rotation of the arm
If you injured the posterior cord what would result? crutch palsy
How might you fracture the clavicle? fall on shoulder, breech delivery, or durinig passage of infant through birth canal
How does the clavicle look after fracture? upward displacement of proximal part and downward displacement of distal fragment
What are the symtoms of a fracture to clavicle? lower trunk injury, fatal hemorrhage from subclavian artery, and thrombosis of subclavian vein leading to pulmonary embolism
Which node does 75% of the breast drain into? Pectoral node
Where does the pectoral lymph node drain? central lymph node
Where does the central lymph node drain? Apical lymph node
Where does the apical lymph node drain? subclavian vein
What is found in the quadrangular space? axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral A
What is found in the triangular space? circumflex scapular A
What is found in the triangular interval? deep brachial A and Radial N
What are the boundaries of the Triangular Interval? Long head of Triceps, Lateral Head of Triceps, and Teres Major
What are the Boundaries of the Quadrangular Space? teres major, teres minor, long head of triceps, humerus
What are the boundaries of the Triangular space? teres major, teres minor, long head of triceps,
Which fracture should you consider abuse? And how does it occur? Spiral fracture, do to torque
What is a comminuted fracture and how does it occur? mutliple large breaks, usually result of high force impact
What is an avulsed fracture? a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone
What is an impacted fracture? bone fragments are driven into each other
What is a torus fracture and another name for it? Who is it common in? when one side of the bone may buckle upon itself without disrupting the other side also known as an incomplete fracture or buckle fracture, common in children
What is a greenstick fracture and who is it common in? the bone cracks but doesn't break all the way through, common in children
What is in the anterior compartment of the arm? It contains the Biceps brachii muscle, Brachialis muscle, and Coracobrachialis muscle. It is supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve[1] and brachial artery and Vein and Ulnar N
What is in the posterior compartment of the arm? It contains the Triceps brachii muscle. It is supplied by the radial nerve and profunda brachi A
Which arm compartment is preaxial? anterior arm compartment
Which arm compartment is postaxial? posterior arm compartment
Around the elbow joint, where would you find the ulnar nerve? behind the medial epicondyle
Around the elbow joint, where would you find the radial nerve? in front of the lateral epicondyle
Around the elbow joint, where would you find the median nerve? on the anterior median part of the cubital fossa
What is an occult fracture? a fracture that does not appear in x-rays, although the bone shows new bone formation within three or four weeks of fracture.
What is olecranon bursitis? student elbow, condition characterised by pain, swelling and inflammation of the olecranon bursa. Can be caused by leaning on it or repetitive movements.
What would you fracture if you extend your elbow to far? olecranon process of ulna
If you have a posterior fat pad sign what have you probably fractured? radial head
What do you have if you have an anterior fat pad displacement? sail sign
Where do the postaxial nerves come from and what are they? posterior cord, axillary and radial
Where do the preaxial nerves come from? And what are the major nerves lateral and medial cord; musculocutaneous, median and ulnar
What does the distal row flexor retinaculum go between hook of hammate and trapezium
What does the proximal row flexor retinaculum go between? scaphoid and pisisform
There is a hole in the carpal tunnel, what does it house? flexor carpi radialis
What is in the carpal tunnel? flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and median nerve
Which vessels and Muscles are above the carpal tunnel? ulnar A and ulnar N, palmaris longus
What M is beside the carpal tunnel? flexor carpi radialis
What does it mean if the styloid of the radius and ulna are at the same level? there is a fracture
How can you test for compartment syndrome of the forearm? extend digits causing pain
What is compartment syndrome? limb threating condition due to compression of nerves, blood vessels and muscle causing an increased pressure within a compartment
What passes under the pronator teres and the flexor digitorum superficialis? What is this tunnel called? median nerve and the ulnar artery; Median tunnel
What 3 MM are innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve and supplied by the artery? pronator quadratus, flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus
What is dupuytren's contracture? fixed flexion contracurtre of the hand where the fingers bend towards the palm and can not be fully extended.
What are the 4 compartments of the hand? thenar, hypothenar, central and interosseous
What is in the hypothenar compartment of the hand? 3 hypothenar MM
What is in the thenar compartment of the hand? 3 thenar MM and tendon of flexor pollicis longus
What is in the central compartment of the hand? flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, lumbricals
What is in the interosseous compartment of the hand? adductor pollicis, palmer interossei, dorsal interossei, metacarpals
How many arucate [annular] fibrous sheaths are in each digit and haow many cruciate fibrous sheaths are in each digit? 5, 4
An infection in the little finger can cause what? ulnar bursitis or infection of the ulnar bursa which is part of the flexor sheath of the 5th digit. The infection will spread proximal
Which side are the lumbricals on? lateral side
What are vincula? tendinous bands that connect the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis
Where does the central slip attach? base of middle phalanx
Where do the lateral bands attach? distal phalanx
What does the extensor expansion divide into? central slip and lateral bands
What is an Allen's test? cut off circulation to both wrist- no circulation. Cut off circulation to 1 side of wrist- circulation to all hand. Shows there is a loop. used to test blood supply to the hand. It is performed prior to radial arterial blood sampling or cannulation.
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa? brachioradialis, & lateral epicondyle, pronator teres $ medial epicondyle, brachial artery, median nerve
What are all the contents in the cubital fossa? biceps tendon, brachial bifurcation, median nerve, ulnar artery and branches [ant inter, post inter], radial A and branches, radial nerve
What is a nurse maid elbow? a dislocation of the elbow joint caused by a sudden pull on the extended pronated arm
What is a supracondylar fracture? rare in adults; usually of the distal humerus just above the epicondyles; associated with the development of serious complications.
What is a sign of a radial neck fracture and how do you treat? posterior fat pad; just let them move it, no cast, maybe a splint
How do you treat a buckle fracture? put in splint, out in a week; tiny bump
What is a colles fracture called? How does it occur and what is it? Dinner fork fracture, distal radius fracture; ulnar and radial styloids may line up
What is a Smith's fracture? fall on back of hand, happens in old people; fracture distal radius
What might pain under the snuff box indicate? avascular necrosis of the scaphoid
What is a cubital tunnel and what is it's sign? impingement of ulnar nerve at the elbow; handle bar neuropathy due to inflammation of the ulnar nerve
What is Wrist drop caused by? radial nerve damage
What is lateral epicondylitis? What is it called? What does odon think causes it? Tennis elbow ; inflammation, soreness, or pain on the outside (lateral) side of the upper arm near the elbow; think is caused from supinator getting torn away from lateral collateral ligament
What is golfing elbow? medial epicondylitis; caused by overuse of tendon
What causes monkey hand? thenar wasting; also called hand of benediction; severed Median nerve at the level of the elbow or upper armThe ability to flex the digits 2–3 at the metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints is lost
What causes hand of benediction? thenar wasting; hand of benediction results from a severed Median nerve at the level of the elbow or upper armThe ability to flex the digits 2–3 at the metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints is lost
What causes claw hand? is an abnormal hand position that develops due to a problem with the ulnar nerve. Hypothenar wasting and lack of metacarpophalangeal flexion for 4th and 5th digit
What causes a boutonniere deformity? avulsion of the central slip of the extensor expansion; lateral band slips
What causes mallet finger? avulsion of the lateral bands of the extensor expansion off the distal phalange. Lose central slip;
What is a gamers thumb? also known as skier's thumb or UCL tear) is a type of injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) ; injury to Medial Collateral ligament of metacarpophalangeal joint
What is a skier's thumb? Gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb or UCL tear) is a type of injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) ; injury to Medial Collateral ligament of metacarpophalangeal joint
What is Heberden's Node? Heberden's nodes are hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP)
What is Bouchard's Node? Bouchard's nodes are hard, bony outgrowths or gelatinous cysts on the proximal interphalangeal joints (the middle joints of fingers or toes.) They are a sign of osteoarthritis,
What causes De Quervain's tendonitis? How do you test? De Quervain's tendinitis occurs when the tendons around the base of the thumb are irritated or constricted. Extensor pollicis longus and brevis. Finkelstein test.
What causes gout? Gout is a kind of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes joint inflammation.
What is Volkmann's contracture? What is it caued by? permanent flexion contracture of hand at wrist; claw-like deformity; commonly cuased by supracondylar fracture of humerus due to obstruction of brachial artery
Which metacarpals are involved in skilled and unskileld boxer fractures? Skilled-2nd and 3rd; unskilled- 5th
What kind of movement does a plane joint allow for? Give an example. gliding movement; acromioclavicular joint
Referred pain to the shoulder often indicates what? involvement of the phrenic nerve which involves the diaphragm because has same nerve root origins as the cutaneous supraclavicular nerve of that region.
What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint? synovial double plane joint
What kind of movemnt can a ball and socket joint do? Give an example. 360 degree movement: flex, extend, adduct, abduct, circumduct, rotate; glenohumeral joint
What reinforces the glenohumeral joint? rotator cuff MM, glenohumeral ligaments, and coracohumeral ligaments
Which muscles make up the rotator cuff MM? Supraspinatus, Infraspiantus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
What do bursae do? form a lubricating mechanism between bones
What kind of joint is the elbow? And what is its range of motion? hinge joint; back and forth movement in one plane
Created by: TJACKS11