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chapter 1

Francis Bacon (philosopher) (1561-1626), ), English philosopher and statesman, one of the pioneers of modern scientific thought.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): English philosopher and political theorist, one of the first modern Western thinkers to provide a secular justification for the political state. The philosophy of Hobbes marked a departure in English philosophy from the religious emphasis of Scholasticism
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), French philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, and one of the most eloquent writers of the Age of Enlightenment.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), ), English author and feminist, born probably in London. Soon after 1780 she left home to earn her living, running a school for two years with her sisters and subsequently serving for a year as a governess in Ireland.
John Locke (1632-1704), English philosopher, who founded the school of empiricism.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Newton formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion—laws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as through the heavens. He established the modern study of optics—or the behavior of light—and built the first reflecting telescope
René Descartes (1596-1650), ), French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, sometimes called the father of modern philosophy
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), ), German astronomer and natural philosopher, noted for formulating and verifying the three laws of planetary motion. These laws are now known as Kepler's laws.
Galileo (1564-1642): . Galileo’s main contributions were, in astronomy, the use of the telescope in observation and the discovery of sunspots, mountains and valleys on the Moon, the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and the phases of Venus.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), best known for his astronomical theory that the sun is at rest near the center of the universe, and that the earth, spinning on its axis once daily, revolves annually around the sun. This is called the heliocentric, or sun-centered, system.
Briefly describe the Scientific Revolution and use two examples from our study galileo contrubituted to the scientific revolution by helping in astronomy
Immanuel Kant defines enlightenment as "man's release from his self-incurred tutelage." Explain what Kant meant by this. kant means that the only way to enlightment is to not be dependant and to be independant from all other people.
Describe the common themes of Enlightenment that we have established during our study. How do these themes then become the basis for creating a "new world" order in society? (Think about comparing the "Old World" with the "New World") the common themes are that the only way to enlightenment is to be independant and to live for yourself.
Created by: truichr14