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WC II Test 1

The Age of Enlightenment/Scientific Revolution

QuestionAnswer
What is the Scientific Revolution? An era associated with the 16th and 17th centuries where new ideas and knowledge in physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry laid the foundations for modern science.
Who is Nicolas Copernicus? A Renaissance astronomer and the first person to create the Heliocentric model: where the sun was the center of the universe, not the Earth.
Who is William Harvey? An English physician who was the first person to describe in detail the systemic circulation and the blood pumping to the heart.
Who is Galileo Galilei? An Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher that improved the telescope.
Who is Johannes Kepler? A German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He is known for his laws of planetary motion.
Who is Sir Francis Bacon? An English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, author and pioneer of the scientific method.
Who is Rene Descartes? A French philosopher and writer. The allowance of algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric 2D shapes was named after him.
Who is Sir Isaac Newton? An English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Known for his three laws of motion (physics).
What is the Age of Enlightenment? A cultural movement in Europe that reformed society and advanced modern knowledge.
Who created the Age of Enlightenment? Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Pierre Bayle, and Isaac Newton.
What is another name for the Age of Enlightenment? The Age of Reason.
Who is John Locke? An English philosopher and physician. His contributions are reflected in the Declaration of Independence, epistemology, and political philosophy.
Who is Thomas Hobbes? An English philosopher, one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
What are the Philosophes? The intellectuals of the Age of Enlightenment, they applied reason to philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues.
What is "Progress?" The idea that the world can become increasingly modern and better in the sense of science, technology, liberty, democracy, etc.
What is Deism? Reason and observation of the world, without the need for a set religion, can determine that the universe is a creation and has a creator, and this creator does not interject in human affairs or suspend the laws of the universe.
What is Tolerance? The permitting of a thing of which one disapproves.
Who is Jean Jacques Rousseau? A Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution.
Who is Mary Wollstonecraft? A British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
What is the Vindication of the Rights of Woman? One of the earliest works of feminist philosophy, written by Mary Wollstonecraft. It covers the idea that women are not naturally inferior to men, but only appear so due to their lack of education.
What is the Social Contract? The book wirrten by Rousseau, covering the theory about the best way to set up a political community in the face of conflict.
What is the General Will? A concept in political philosophy referring to the interest of a people as an entirety.
What are the 5 themes of Enlightenment? 1. Independence, 2. Equality, 3. Progress, 4. Deism, 5. Toleration.
What is Thomas Hobbes' opinion on political philosophy? Government worked best when there was a single person at the head of the country.
What is John Locke's opinion on political philosophy? People of a certain place should have the power in determining the laws and who presides over the country.
What is Thomas Hobbes' belief in human understanding? He likens the human behavior to that of an animal who needs a master; they need structure and direction.
What is John Locke's belief in human understanding? Humans are born with a tabula rosa and that all knowledge is gained through experience.
What is tabula rosa? Blank slate.
How did Nicolas Copernicus come up with his theory of heliocentric model? Constant observation of the positioning of the stars.
How did William Harvey come up with his theory of systemic circulation? Observing the hearts of animals and having wittnessed the heart's ability to recover from fatigue when placing his finger on the inactive heart of a dead pigeon.
How did Johannes Kepler come up with his laws of planetary motion? By analyzing the astronomical observations of Tycho Brahe.
How did Rene Descartes come up with his coordinate system? He saw a fly on his ceiling one night, and decided that if he specified the shortest distance from two perpendicular walls, he could find the exact position of the fly.
How did Sir Isaac Newton come up with his three laws of motion? Demonstrating and examining the consistency between Kepler's laws and his theory of gravitation, removing any doubts about heliocentrism.
Created by: mcculin14