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Intro to A&P - WHS

WHS A&P Vocabulary Introduction

anatomy structure of an organism
physiology the study of the functions of an organism
homeostasis the relatively stable state of equilibrium of an organism and its parts
anatomical position standard position in which the body is facing forward, feet are parallel, and the arms are at the sides with palms facing forward
pathology the study of disease
negative feedback mechanism of homeostasis that tends to stabilize a process by reducing its rate or output
positive feedback mechanism of homeostasis feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output
frontal plane plane that divides the body into front and back sections
transverse plane plane that divides the body into top and bottome sections
sagittal plane plane that divides the body into left and right sections
midsagittal plane plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves
body cavity a hollow place or space within the body or one of its organs
receptor a sensory nerve ending that receives information about a stimulus
effector an organ that produces a response based on information from the control center
control center brain or spinal cord, where information from a stimulus is processed and a response generated
supine lying on the back, palms and face upward
prone lying on the stomach, palms and face downward
x-ray image created by sending electromagnetic radiation through body parts, solid parts appear white
MRI abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging, uses a large circular magnet and radio waves to generate signals from atoms in the body creating images of internal structures
CAT Scan abbreviation for computerized axial tomography, uses a computer and a rotating x-ray device to create detailed, cross-sectional images, or slices, of organs and body parts
ultrasound sound waves pass through the body producing echoes, which can identify distance, size and shape of internal structures
abdominopelvic quadrant two lines intersecting through the bellybutton creating four equal regions of the torso below the diaphragm
superior above or on top
inferior below or under
cranial toward the head, a.k.a. cephalic
cephalic toward the head, a.k.a. cranial
caudal toward the tailbone
anterior front, a.k.a. ventral
posterior back, a.k.a. dorsal
ventral stomach side
dorsal back side
medial toward the midline of the body
lateral away from the midline of the body
proximal toward the point of attachment or origin (used for limbs only)
distal away from the point of attachment or origin (used for limbs only)
superficial toward the skin or surface
deep toward the internal organs or away from the surface
sural region of the calf
gluteal region of the buttocks
pelvic region between the front of the hips
inguinal region where legs attach to the torso
umbilical region of the bellybutton
carpal region of the wrist
digital region of the fingers
pubic region just above the genitals
metabolism sum of all the chemical processes that build up and break down cells
organism single living thing
organ system organs working together to perform a specific function
organ multiple tissues working together to perform a specific function
tissue cells working together to perform a specific function
cell living matter surrounded by a membrane
reproductive system organ system which functions in creating offspring (penis and testes in males, ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females)
urinary system organ system which functions in maintaining water balance and eliminating nitrogen wastes (kidneys, urinary tract)
digestive system organ system which breaks down and absorbs nutrients (stomach, intestines, liver)
respiratory system organ system that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide (trachea, lungs, bronchi, alveoli)
lymphatic system organ system that returns fluids that have escaped from cells to the blood and also assists with immunity (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils)
cardiovascular system organ system responsible for transporting gases, nutrients, and wastes through the blood (heart, blood vessels)
endocrine system organ system that releases hormones to control metabolism (glands)
nervous system organ system that receives and interprets stimuli and generates responses to effector organs (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
muscular system organ system that creates movement (muscles, tendons)
skeletal system organ system that provides protection and support for body parts (bones, cartilage, ligaments)
integumentary system organ system that provides protection for the body (skin, hair, nails)
crural region of the shin
orbital region around they eye
axillary region of the armpit
popliteal region behind the knee
sacral region of the tail bone
coxal region of the hip bones
sternal region of the breast bone
fibular region of the outside of the lower leg
tarsal region underneath the ankle
brachial region of the upper arm
vertebral region over the entire spine
thoracic region of the rib cage
abdominal region below the bellybutton
lumbar region of the lower spine
antecubital region of the front of the elbow
oral region of the mouth
deltoid region of the shoulder
femoral region of the front of the thigh
patellar region of the kneecap
scapular region of the shoulder blade
occipital region of the back of the head
buccal region of the cheeks
nasal region of the nose
cervical region of the neck
acromial region of the top of the shoulder
Created by: mshunt



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