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Chapter 12 AP Euro

European History

French Wars of Religion The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name given to a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).
Battle of Lepanto a naval battle fought between a spanish and venetian fleet and the german navy. the spanish won. the battle meant that european navies ahd surpassed the muslims. the turks could no longer challenge europeans on international routes
Sir Francis Drake english explorer and admiral who was the first englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the spanish armada (1540-1596)
Gustavus Adolphus joins thirty years' war in 1629, king of sweden, protestant leader, stands up for fellow protestants, military genius, wins a lot for protestant team; supported by richelieu, who wants to end hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of luetzen
Henry II in 1154, he became king of england, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. married to eleanor of aquitaine, father of king john
Gian Lorenzo Bernini italian architect and sculptor, famous for saint peter's basilica
Francis I king of france; a renaissance monarch; patron of the arts; imposed new controls on the catholic church; ally of the ottoman sultan against the holy roman emperor. agreement with pope leo x allowed the french king to select french bishops and abbots
Christian II of Denmark danish, unsuccessful promoter of catholicism - king of denmark, sweden, and norway roughly - marries in charles v family - kill rejectors in stockholm - arrested and imprisoned for life.
Sir William Cecil the shrewd adviser of elizabeth i. together, they guided a religious settlement through parliament that prevented england from being torn asunder by religious differences
Henry IV first bourbon king-most important kings in french history-rise to power ended french civil wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to catholicism to gain loyalty of paris
Dutch Revolt (1566-79) caused for religious reasons; protestant region in northern spanish netherlands/dutch republic; they revolted against spanish authority for political and religious independence from spain
Spanish Armada spanish fleet that attempted to invade england, ending in disaster, due to raging storm in english channel as well as the smaller&better english navy led by francis drake. viewed as the decline of spains golden age,&rise of england as a world naval power.
Peace of Westphalia treaty that ended the thirty years' war (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of europe.
Duke of Alba and the Council of Blood spanish governor of the netherlands, in 1567. the job of this council was to try cases of suspected treason committed by protestant rebels against the catholic government imposed by spain.
Michel de Montaigne frenchman who after death of a dear friend, thought deeply agout life's meaning. developed essay, brief work othat expresses a persons thoughts an opinions
Catherine de' Medici wife of henry ii influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. placed alliance w/ ultra/militiantcatholics led by the guise family. permitted their own army which tookout the other religions in french borders-fr.cvlwars& bartholome'sdaymassacr
St. Teresa & the Carmelites prominent spanish mystic, roman catholic saint, carmelite nun, and writer of the counter reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. nuns who dedicated their lives to prayer and founded by st. teresa of avila
Sir Francis Walsingham elizabeth i's spy who uncovered a plot to overthrow her that involved the former queen of scotland
Fugger main wealthy banking family is augsburg, germany; went bankrupt due to problems with loans to the french monarchy
Elizabeth I reestablished protestantism as the state religion of england and she led the defeat of the spanish armada.
Thirty Years' War religious war btwn catholics and protestants, resulted in the political restructuring of europe & development of nation states-dutch republic,austro-hungarian empire.granted religious freedom in many parts of europe&encouraged secularization of gov't.
European witch hunts caused by the stress or warring between catholics and protestants; witches were mainly widows and single women (independent)
Pacification of Ghent agreement set forth by the prince of orange to unify the seventeen provinces under him, and spain.
Lope de Vega standard of playwrights set by him in the 1580s. he wrote an extraordinary number of plays, perhaps 1,500, almost 500 of them survive. they have been characterized as witty,charming, action-packed, and realistic.
Edict of Nantes 1598, decree promulgated at nantes by king henry iv to restore internal peace in france, which had been torn by the wars of religion; the edict defined the rights of the french protestants
John Knox this was the man who dominated the reform movement in scotland. he established the presbyterian church of scotland so that ministers ran the church, not bishops.
Battle of Lutzen (swedish phase) sweds won against wallenstein (catholic) and protestantism is established in norther germany and catholicism is established in southern germany (in this battle gustav adolphus dies)
Battle of White Mountain battle that where ferdinand and the catholic league defeated frederick and the bohemian nobles outside of prague and caused frederick to lose two crowns and flee into holland
Defenestration of Prague the throwing of catholic officials from a castle window in bohemia. started the thirty years' war.
Baroque Art art that originated in rome and is associated with the catholic reformation, characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit
Miguel de Cervantes spanish writer best remembered for 'don quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
Christian IV king of denmark, lutheran, tried to help protestant by leading an army into northern germany
Philip II son of louis vii whose reign as king of france saw wars with the english that regained control of normandy and anjou and most of poitou
Mary, Queen of Scots catholic relative to protestant queen elizabeth i of england. she allegedly plotted with spain's philip ii to overthrow elizabeth and reassert catholicism in england. elizabeth had her beheaded.
Cardinal Richelieu the man who influenced the power of king louis xiii the most and tried to make france an absolute monarchy
Peter Paul Rubens the most famous baroque artist who studied michelangelo in italy and took that renaissance style to the next level of drama, motion, color, religion and animation, which is portrayed in his paintings
Albrecht von Wallenstein mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the hre, he won many important battles against the protestants.
El Greco spanish painter (born in greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color
William the Silent prince of orange, resisted philip ii's effort to defeat the dutch
Created by: basketballstar13