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Chapter 2 - Terms

The Renaissance and Reformation

Mongols held Russia in subjugation for 200 years; because of them, Renaissance didn't happen in Russia
Ottoman Turks penetrated Byzantine Empire and spread over the Balkans; brought a Muslim influence to region
jacqueries jacq = french word for peasant; a massive insurrection of peasants and rebellions of workers
Hundred Year's War (1337 - 1458) faught between England and France; was also a French war for unification and resulted in the unifying of France
Wars of the Roses a fight for position and power among England's upperclass; gave birth to the Tudor's reign
Unam Sanctam Edict issued by Pope Boniface VIII stating that there was no salvation outside the Roman Church
Avignon During the Bobylonian Captivity, where french pope lived
Babylonia Captivity When the Pope resided in France; Europe believed papacy was in control and ordaned their own pope as well
Great Schism of the West When there were 2 popes, one in Avignon and one in Rome; eventually 3; chipped away at authority of papacy
Hussite Wars Rebellion against pope's authority lead by John Huss; they believed church could go without the fancy decorations and that they could be saved w/out going to the church
Council of Pisa A church council where all of Latin West was represented; both popes were disposed, but refused to step down; council elected new pope as well resulting in 3 popes
Council of Constance Ended the three-part schism in Catholic Church
Martin V Pope that replaced the three popes in power during the Great Schism of the West
simony to buy or sell a church office; common in the 15th century
nepotism appointing family members to high-ranking offices; one of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Boniface VIII Encouraged the idea of indulgences; men could be forgiven if they paid money for it
indulgences allows monetary donations to the church in exchange for penance; looks corruptive; Luther's main objection with Catholic Church
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every 10 years, required election over appointment to church offices; started chain of events causing France to leave Catholic Church
Gallican name of the French church
Holy See fancy name for the Pope
Quattrocento the name Italians gave to the 15th century
Tuscany the state that Florence, Italy was located in; home to many talented Renaissance artists
Medici Family the ruling family of Florence; payed for and sponsered the arts, making it possible for artists to pursue their career and make a living
renunciation to regect worldly things and look at life as a step to the afterlife; commonplace in Medival Times
virtu what a Renaissance Man posessed; 'i am a human and i will enjoy this world, demonstrate my power and be proud of my accomplishments'
Benvenuto Cellini Author of his Autobiography (who wrote autobiographies in Middle Ages?); record of life in Renaissance Italy; prime example of 'virtu'
perspective painting technique perfected by Giotto; made paintings look real, not 2-D as they had been in Medival Times
humanism literary movement distinct from the writing of the late Middle Ages; dealt with issues of politics and personal concern outside of religion; new intellectual ideals, esp the human experience
Dante Author of The Devine Comedy; a bridge between Europe's past and future
The Devine Comedy Wrote by Dante; helped define and legitamize the vernacular language of Italian; writen about real people and events of the year, something that wouldn't have been writen about in Middle Ages
vernacular the language spoken by commonors; as opposed to the Latin spoken by the Nobles
Petrarch the first great humanist thinker and a scholor of latin; author of Triumphs and On the Solitary Life; "Father of Humanisn"
scholasticism to sit, focus, rewrite and read books
Cicero Roman writer and politician dedicated to common sense and commited to political libery; went from rags to riches - hero to modern society
Decameron Wrote by Petrarch; series of tales for entertainment purposes only; designed to put a light on human behavior and character
rhetoric the art of using language to influence others
Book of the Courtier one of the most sucessful manner books; told how men should act (like a Renaissance Man)
condottieri professional fighting men; mercinaries for city-states
Niccolo Machiavelli Author of The Prince; most important work on political science for centuries;
The Prince handbook of statecraft; told how it is better for a leader to be feared than loved, like a fox and a lion; governments were sucessful because they acted only in their own political interest
'pagan' humanism type of Italian humanism; were more willing to abandon tradition and freely explore worldly affairs; decadent and out-of control to Christians
Christian humanism humanism of North - more focus on ethics and morals and old-fashioned Christianity
Wittenberg German city where Luther was born; home of the Protestant Reformation
Fugger Sucessful banking family of Holy Roman Empire; Fuggers are to HRE as Medicis are to Italy
Mainz where Gutenburg produced the first books using the printing press
Johann Mulller laid foundations for a mathematical concept of the universe; starting to become acceptible to explore the world through science
Copernicus revived idea of a sun-centered solar system
Dr. Faustus achieved great wealth; as a result, was rumored that he sold his soul to the devil for knowledge and power
Mysticism the belief that an individual could commune with God unaided by the church or sacraments; found in the North
laymen those who believe but are not confirmed; also those who preach their own interpretation of the Bible
Gerard Groote a lay preacher who attracted followers by his sermons on spiritual regeneration; established the Sisters and the Brothers of the Common Life
The Sisters and the Brothers of the Common Life a religious sister/brother hood focused on religion; founded by Gerard Groote; example of Catholic Church weakening
Modern Devotion Chritian ideal of character and conduct; to have the qualities of humility, tolerance, reverance, love of neighbor
Erasmus Erasmus is to North as Petriarch is to Italy; Author of The Praise of Folly and Handbook of a Christian Knight; wanted reform within the Catholic Church (but not abandon it) and was a leader in Renaissance learning in North
Praise of Folly Wrote by Erasmus; satire attack on Catholic Church's corruption (NOT the Church itself)
Handbook of Christian Knights Wrote by Erasmus; showed how a man can be both worldy and devoutly Christian; balance between humanism and Christianity
New Monarchs first rulers that make an attempt to be different from Medival kings; aim to make their country more like Rome: Roman Law over Feudal Law, one national army over a military for each manor, support a middle class, add taxes; want to get rid of feudalism
sovereign political power and authority
Tudors rose to power as a result of the War of the Roses; first royal family in England to be of the New Monarchs
Henry VIII First king on new monarchy;
6 wives of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr
livery and maintenence the practice where each manor had its own army
Star Chamber a group of advisors, like a modern-day cabinet; English court of law that inspired our Electoral College
Louis XI first of the New Monarchs in France
Valios the royal family of France; contains Louis XI and his sucessors
Estates General France's version of a parliment; only meets in times of authority and has 3 chambers: clegry, nobles, commoners
Aragon one of the Spanish kingdoms; Ferdinand of Aragon
Castile one of the Spanish kingdoms; Isabella of Castile
Ferdinand and Isabella Aragon and Castile; both kingdoms were united in the fight against the Moors; this and marriage between the two was the foundation of Spanish unity
Moors North African Muslims; were finally driven out of Spain sparking the country to unify under the crown of Spain
Inquisition to enquire, investigate; Spain tried to find non-Catholics left in Spain and would torture and execute them
reconquista Spain drives the Moors out of Spain
Granada when this city of Spain fell, the reconquista was complete; Jews and Moors were banished from Spain
Moriscos Christians of Moorish background
Marranas Christians of Jewish background
Hapsburgs / Hansburgs ruling family of the Holy Roman Empire state Austria; also the ruling family of the Holy Roman Empire, thereby making Austria the dominate state of the HRE
Maximillian I a Hapsburg and Holy Roman Emperor; first to use New Monarchy techniques; aggresive to marry off as many family members to different royal families; start inheriting a lot of land
state's rights the power for the states to control their government: anti-unification of Germany in particular; why give up power to a central authority?
Charles V follows Maximillian I as Holy Roman Emperor; represents high point and falling of Hapsburgs; Emperor while Luther is busting up HRE from within; cannot deal with Luther as a usual heretic because Luther had backing of several German states
universal monarchy a world-state where individual independence was impossible; what Holy Roman Empire and Hapsburgs were imposing on other European countries
popery all the traditions of the Catholic Church
Martin Luther first to sucessfully defy older church authorities after nailing his 95 thesis; founder of the Luthern faith; all you need is faith, not sacraments
Tetzel seller of indulgences in Luther's hometown Wittenburg;
Leo X pope in power during Luther's revolt from the Catholic Church; excommunicated Luther
transubtantiation Catholic belief that Jesus is the bread and wine in communion; the 'mashed potatoes' from the Christians
consubstantiation what the Lutherns believe in; communion is a connection to God, however bread and wine are symbols of Jesus not his body
Diet of Worms Charles V's last attempt at making things right with Luther (to say sorry); Diet = big fancy meeting, Worms = city; Charles V wants forgiveness to avoid war but it isnt sucessful
Schmalkaldic League failure of Diet of Worms cause this civil-war like war in Germany; this is the alliance of German states that support Luther
Peace of Augsburg of 1555 'treaty' as a result of the war of the Schmalkaldic League; allows German states to decide what their official religion will be creating a North/South divide of Luthernism/Catholic respectively; victory for protesetants
interim time in between
John Calvin founder of Calvinism
Calvinism faith-based religion; pre-destination is the core of this religion; a religion that speaks to the masses and becomess the protestant religion outside of Germany; view communion as just a seremony
Institutes of the Christian Religion Written by John Calvin; wrote about the beliefs of predestination and the Church's government (should be moral force behind state affairs)
predestination the Calvinistic belief that God knew if you were going to heaven or hell; they are the chosen people
Puritan their work ethic has helped build America and other English colonies; aka Calvinists
presbyteries elected body made up of ministers and devout laymen; broke monopoly of priest's power; promoted secularisation but wanted to Christianize society
Geneva where Calvin set up his model of Christian community; like the Rome of protestants
Huguenots French Calvinists
John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland
Presbyterianism Scotland's religion; the Scotland version of Calvinism
Francis I king of France; was Catholic, however supported protestants in Germany - they threatened the Holy Roman Empire's potentual universal monarchy; also helped HRE keep from unifying
Council of Trent shaped path of modern Catholicism; the internal responce to the protestant reformation - cleaning up corruption and reaffirming the faith ('we ain't changing')
conciliar issue Catholic Church should be like a government; a council to check on the Pope's power; Pope didnt want this - if he reacted right away to protestant reformation, he would look weak and council would stay (reason for hesitation in Catholic responce_
Vatican Council (1870) announced that the Pope is never wrong on matters of faith and morals
vulgate the only version of the Bible accepted by the Catholic Church; Catholic Church is to Vulgate as Supreme Court is to the constitution
pluralism one person who held several church offices at the same time
Paul III founder and first of the reformation popes
Ignatius Loyola founder of the Jesuits; trys to reconvert people, educated them, and promote the Catholic Church
Society of Jesus aka the Jesuits; active participation in affairs of the world; acted as an international enforcer for Catholic law; tried to sway undecided countries to the Catholic side
Jesuits aka Society of Jesus
Spiritual Exercises writen by Ignatius Loyola
ultramontanism extremely devout Christians; regarded papacy as holy
Index of Prohibited Books issued by Pope Paul IV; list of books Catholics couldn't read
High Commission English version of Spanish Inquisition; judicial and police group that enforced conformity to Anglican church
Spanish Inquisition expands from reqonquista; knocked down protestantism and spread Catholic faith onto world; hunted and killed non-Christians in Spain
Roman Inquisition less-intense version of Spanish Inquisition; hunted for non-Catholics - they wouldnt kill non Catholics
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