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Blood Pathologies

Blood Vessel and Blood Pathologies

TermDefinition
Atherosclerosis Hardening of the arteries
Arteriosclerosis Shrinking and loss of elasticity in artery walls
Polyarteritis nodosa Autoimmune-caused inflammation of medium and small muscular arteries
Giant Cell arteritis Macrophages invade medium sized arteries, most often in temporal region of the head
Reynaud's disease Muscular arteries and arterioles constrict rapidly and abnormally
Hypertension Causes increased cardiac workload, arteries become worn and positive feedback effect worsens over time
Varicose Veins Faulty valves cause veins in lower limbs to become dilated; aggrivated by standing for long periods of time
Thrombophlebitis Thrombotic occlusion of the veins preventing outflow of veinous blood and promotes the likelihood of varicosities forming
Stroke Caused by cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, and/or burst aneurysms
Transient Ischemic Attacks Characterized by sudden, temporary weakness or numbness in face, arm, and/or leg on one side of the body
Anemia Blood pathology characterized by reduced hemoglobin levels
Aplastic Anemia Generalized bone marrow failure, accompanied by leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
Iron Deficiency Anemia Most common form of anemia, causes blood cells to be small and contain less hemoglobin
Megaloblastic Due to deficiency of Vitamin B12 or folic acid needed for DNA synthesis and blood cell production
Hemolytic Type of anemia due to red blood cell destruction (hemolysis)
Sickle-cell Anemia Autosomal dominant disease affecting one of the beta hemoglobin chains
Polycythemia Also known as erythrocytosis
Primary Polycythemia Due to a malignancy in the red blood cell line; blood becomes viscous leading to hypertension
Secondary Polycythemia Non-neoplastic disease due to prolonged hypoxia
Leukopenia Reduced number of white blood cells, usually caused by toxins, cancer therapies, or HIV
Leukocytosis Increased number of white blood cells; normal response to infection
Leukemia Bone marrow contains malignant cells; results in increased leukocytes in blood, anemia, recurrent infections and uncontrolled bleeding
Lymphoma Malignancies of lymphocytes and their precursors; accounts for about 3% of all human malignancies
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Symptoms include lymph node enlargement, systemic problems, tumor spreads to other tissues (e.g., brain)
Hodgkin's Disease Malignant lymphoma diagnosed by presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
Multiple Myeloma Malignant disease of the plasma cells; most patients over 45 years old
Hemorrhage Bleeding disorder; includes three different types: external, internal or purpura
Purpura Bleeding from multiple sites
Thrombocytopenia Too few platelets; due to aplastic anemia, leukemia, drugs, infectious agents--blood does not clot properly
Thrombocytosis Too many platelets; usually due to myeloid malignancy
Hemophilia Sex-linked recessive genetic disorder due to lack of factor VIII or XI needed for normal blood clotting
Created by: MarilynKoch