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a&p exam 1

(epithelial tissue)single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm simple squamous
(epithelial tissue) allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae simple squamous
(epithelial tissue) location: kidney glomeruli, air sacs of the lungs, lining of the heart, blood vessel simple squamous
(epithelial tissue) single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei simple cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) function: secretion and absorption simple cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) location: kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface simple cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei simple columnar
(epithelial tissue) function: absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes & other substances, ciliated type propels mucus simple columnar
(epithelial tissue) location: nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes and some regines of the uterus; small intestine simple columnar
(epithelial tissue) single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia pseudostratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) function: secretion, particularly of mucus, propulsion of mucus by ciliary action pseudostratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) location: nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; trachea; upper respiratory tract pseudostratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) thick membrane composed of several cell layers; surface cells are flattened stratified squamous
(epithelial tissue) function: protects underlying tissues from areas subjected to abrasion stratified squamous
(epithelial tissue) location: esophagus, mouth, and vagina stratified squamous
(epithelial tissue) generally two layers of cubelike cells stratified cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) function: protection stratified cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) location: salivary gland duct, sweat glands, mammary glands stratified cuboidal
(epithelial tissue) several cell layers, elongated cells with nuclei that looks stretched stratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) function: protection, secretion stratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) location: urethra stratified columnar
(epithelial tissue) resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal transitional
(epithelial tissue) function: stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ transitional
(epithelial tissue) location: ureters, urinary bladder transitional
hierarchy of organization (6 things) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
necessary life functions (8) boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
2 components of serosa membranes visceral & parietal
homeostatic process (name the steps when theres a change in the variable) change in variable ---> receptor ---> afferent signal ---> central processor ---> efferent signal ---> effector system
function of membrane proteins (5) transport enzymes, receptor sites, intercellular junctions, cell-cell recognition, cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix attachment
they increase the surface area of the cell microvilli
timpermeable junctions tight junctions
anchoring junctions, lets fluid through desmosones
allows electrical current to flow through; connects two membranes; internal orlds can functionally affect the other gap junction
net movement of a substance down a concentration gradient; results from intrinsic kinetic energy; continues until a dynamic equilibrium is reached diffusion
(type of diffusion) nonpolar substances that are lipid soluble pass directly through the lipid bilayer simple diffusion
diffusion of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane osmosis
solution with a greater solute concentration than inside a cell hypertonic solution
solution with a lower solute concentration than inside a cell hypotonic solution
lipid insoluble molecules that are too large to diffuse through membrane pores can move passively with carrier molecules facilitated diffusion
cell uses energy to move substances across the membrane; transport molecules harvest energy from ATP to pump molecules against concentration gradients active transport
when a substance is released from vesicle (membranous sac); fuses with the membrane and releases contents to outside exocytosis
large substances progressively enclosed by membrane and taken into the cell endocytosis
cellular eating phagocytosis
cellular drinking pinocytosis
cellular material inside the cell cytoplasm
what the cytoplasmm is comprised of cytosol & organelles
transduces energy into usebale cellular work mitochondria
folds of the inner cellular membrane cristae
site of protein synthesis ribosomes
interactive system of membranes that interact either directly through physical contact or indirectly through vesicles endomembrane system
membrane-enclosed sacs that are pinched off portions of membranes moving from one membrane to another vesicle
endomembrane system includes what (5) nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles
lacks ribosomes; synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroids; carbohydrate metabolism; detoxifies drugs; calcium storage smooth ER
protein synthesis; has ribosomes; protein departs and is pinched off from here rough ER
modifies, concentrates, and packages rough ER products golgi apparatus
digestive compartements; membranous sac containing hydrolytic enzymes lysosomes
network of fibers throughout the cytoplasm that form a framework for support and movement and regulation cytoskeleton
thickest part of the cytoskeleton microtubules
thinnest part of the cytoskeleton microfilaments
most stable and permanent cytoskeletal element intermediate filaments
neutralizes the hazardous byproducts; only organelle with one membrane peroxisome
stores fluid and starches inside of the cell vacuoles
space in between the cells interstitial space
includes all events from a cell's formation until it divides; includes two major periods: interphase and cell division the cell cycle
phase that starts from cell formation and ends at cell division interphase
grwoth phase with little cell division-related activities G1
synthetic phase; DNA replicates s phase
brief period of growth where enzymes and other proteins necessary for division are synthesized g2
2 daughter cells are identical to the mother cell; no gain or loss of genetic material; serious of continuous events; lasts about two hours mitosis
(mitosis) chromatin condenses to form chromosomes; chromosomes already replicated and consist of two sister chromatids; sister chromatids are connected by the centromere; nucleoli & nuclear envelope disappear; spindles attach to kinetochores prophase
(mitosis) chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell; chromosomes line up on the "equatorial" plate metaphase
(mitosis) centromeres of the chromosomes split, each chromatid is now a chromosome, kinetochore fibers contract ande pull chromosomes towards poles; poles are pushed apart to elongate the cell; shortest stage anaphase
chromosome movement stops; chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin again; nuclear membrane reforms; nucleoli reform; spindles disassemble telophase
peripheral microfilaments contract at the cleavage furrow to squeeze the cells apart cytokinesis
gamete production; two consecutive divisions produce four daughter cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the mother cell meiosis
(meiosis) chromosome form, nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear; synapsis prophase 1
homologous chromosomes form tetrads; crossover points form synapsis
other name for synapsis chiasmata
(meiosis) tetrads align on equatorial plate metaphase 1
(meiosis) centromeres do NOT break (sister chromatids remain paired); homologous chromosomes spearate, breaking at crossover points (exchange parts of chromosomes); paternal and maternal chromosomes are separated anaphase 1
increase in new cells neoplasia
disorder arising from abnormal change in cell size dystrophy
increase in size of cells hypertrophy
disorder arising from abnormal change in cell number dysplasia
increase in number of cells hyperplasia
decrease in cell number aplasia
unchecked growht of genetically abnormal cells tumor
type of tumor - looks like normal tissue, grows slowly, does not invade benign
type of tumor - poorly differentiated, grows fast, invasive, metastasize malignant
tumor of epithelial origin carcinoma
tumor of connective tissue origin sarcoma
the study of the cause of a disease and the factors that lead to it epidemiology
risk factors for cancer -----> host factors age, sex, psychological factors, genetic factors
risk factors for cancer -----> environmental & lifestyle factors geographic location, nutrition, occupation, cigarette smoking
accumulation of damage to the DNA over time; initiation of cancer neoplastic transformation
mutagens that cause cancer carcinogen
induce cell proliferation or growth proto-oncogenes
inhibit growht of damaged cells tumor suppressor genes
four tissue types nervous, muscle, epithelial, connective
primary function of the nervous tissue information processing
primary function of the muscle tissue contraction to generate force
primary function of the epithelial tissue cover exposed areas
primary function of the connective tissue structure and support
cell types in the nervous tissue (2) neurons & glia
cell types in the musccle tissue (3) smooth, cardiac, skeletal
cell types in the epithelial tissue (5) squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional, glandular
cell types in the connective tissue (6) fibroblasts, white blood cells, mast cells, plasma cells, macrophages, adipocytes
are there fibers in nervous tissue? no
are there fibers in the muscle tissue? no
where are the fibers in the epithelial tissues? basement membrane
where are the fibers in the connective tissue? collagen, reticular, elastic
are there fluids in the nervous tissue? yes; nutrient-rich, aqueous
are there fluids in the muscle tissue? minimal
are there fluids in the epithelial tissue? limited
are there fluids in the connective tissue? depends on the type of connective tissue......
the word that means "receives nervous innervation" (epithelial) innervated
the word that means "contains no blood vessels" (epithelial) avascular
Created by: aahenderson9



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