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The Lang of Medicine
The Language of Medicine Chapter 5 #2
|pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
|a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. It secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins;produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weights about 2.5 to 3 pounds.
|ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter
|lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
|the sixth, seventh, and eight teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.
|roof of the mouth. The hard ______ lies anterior to the soft ______ and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
|organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
|small elevations on the tongue. It is a nipple-like elevation.
|papillae (singular papilla)
|salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
|rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, it moves teh contents thru at different rates; stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours.
|throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
|large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
|enzyme that digests protein
|soft tissue within a tooth, containg nerves and blood vessels.
|ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the Greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it.
|distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.
|last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.
|ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
|digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
|parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
|fourth and last, s shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
|circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage of closes a natural opening.
|muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. the stomash's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section).
|fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
|soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. the latin uva means bunch of grapes.
|microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
|villi (singular: villus)
|bucc/o buccal mucosa
|cheek a mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body.
|cholecyst/o don't confuse cholecyst/o with cyst/o, which means urinary bladder!
|common bile duct
|colon, large intestine
|intestines, usually small intestines
|lower jaw, mandible
|anus and rectum
|bilirubin (bile pigment)
|glycogen, animal starch
|defecation, elimiation of wastes
|anorexia -orexia anorexia nervosa
|Lack of appetite. appetite loss of appetite associated with emotional problems such as anger, anxiety, and irrational fear of weight gain.
|Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. This condiiton occurs with fluid passes from the bloodstream and collecgts in the peritoneal cavity.
|borborymus (plural: borborygmi)
|Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal trac.
|difficulty in passing stools (feces).
|frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
|difficulty in swallowing
|gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
|gas expelled through the anus. flatulence is the presence of excessive gas in the stomach and the intestines.
|passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum. the cause of hematochezia usually is bleeding due to colitis or from ulcers or polyps in the colon or rectum.
|yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).
|black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.
|unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated wtih a tendency to vomit.
|fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter.
|inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers. commonly called canker sores...cause unknown.
|inflammation of the mouth cause by infecgtion with the herpesvirus.
|white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
|inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone. gengivitis occurs as a result of accumulation of dental plaque and dental calculus or tarter.
|falure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax.
|malignant tumor of the esophagus.
|swollen varicose veins @ the lower end of sophagus. Liver disease (such as cirrhosis &chronic hepatitis) causes increased pressure in veins near and around the liver (portal hypertension)-leads to enlarges, tortuous esponageal veins w danger of hemorage.
|malignant tumor of the stomach.
|gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
|solids and fluids return to the mnouth from the stomach.
|protrusion of an organ or part through the musckle normaly containing it.
|open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
|abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
|benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
|adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
|chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
|abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall.
|painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection.
|swollen, twisted, varicosde veins in the rectal region.
|loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines.
|telescoping of the intestines.
|irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
|group of gastronintestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension.
|chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
|twisting of the intestine on itself.
|gallstones in the gallbladder. calculi=stones. biliary colic=pain from blocked cystic or common bile duct. .
|chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
|malignant tumor of the pancreas.
|inflammation of the pancreas
|inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.