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A&P 2 - E1 - P2

A&P 2 - Exam 1 - Part 2 - Anatomy, Blood Vessels

What is a vessel that carries blood away from the heart? artery
What is a small artery? arteriole
What is a vessel that carries blood toward the heart? vein
What is a small vein? venule
What are microscopic vessels that carry blood from aterioles to venules? capillaries
How many layers do arteries and veins have? 3
What is the outermost layer of a vessel, that is made of strong, flexible fibrous connective tissue? tunica adventitia
Which layer of a vessel helps hold vessels open and prevents tearing of vessels during body movement? tunica adventitia
Which is the thickest vessel layer in veins? tunica adventitia
What is the middle layer of a vessel? tunica media
Which layer of a vessel is made of smooth muscle tissue sandwiched together with a layer of elastic connective tissue? tunica media
What 2 layers of tissue is tunica media made up of? smooth muscle tissue and elastic connective tissue
What layer permits changes in blood vessel diameter? tunica media
The tunica media is thicker in ______________. arteries
What is the innermost layer of a vessel? tunica intima
What is the tunica intima made up of? endothelium
What layer in arteries is a completely smooth lining? tunica intima
What layer in veins forms semilunar valves? tunica intima
How many layers do capillaries have? one
The single of capillaries is made up of _______________. endothelium
The capillary wall is thin enough to allow effective exchange of materials between the ________________ and ______________. plasma, interstitial fluid
What are the most important vessels because they allow the delivery and collection of substances? capillaries
What are capillaries also known as? exchange vessels
What carries blood to arterioles? arteries
What carries blood from arteries to capillaries? arterioles
What serve as resistance vessels, controlling blood flow through capillary networks? arterioles
What act as collectors and as reservoir vessels? veins
What are called the capacitance vessels and have the ability to stretch and help maintain normal circulation? veins
Systemic circulation begins in what chamber of the heart? left ventricle
Pulmonary circulation begins in what chamber of the heart? right ventricle
Systemic circulation returns to what chamber of the heart? right atrium
Pulmonary circulation returns to what chamber of the heart? left atrium
What are arteries that eventually diverge into capillaries? "end arteries"
Incidence of arterial anastomoses increases as distance from the heart _______________. increases
Arteries that open into other branches of the same or other arteries is an example of? arterial anastomoses
Veins are the ultimate extensions of _________________. capillaries
Capillaries unite into vessels of increasing size to form ______________. venules and then veins
What are large veins of the cranial cavity called? dural sinuses
Veins _____________ the same as arteries. anastomose
Venous blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and thoracic cavity (except lungs) drains into the _________________. superior vena cava
Venous blood drains into the superior vena cava from what areas? head, neck, upper extremities and thoracic cavity (except lungs)
What does venous blood from thoracic organs drain into? superior vena cava or azygos vein
Veins from the spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines send their blood to the liver via the _______________. hepatic portal vein
Blood drained from the liver by hepatic veins enters the heart through the ___________________. inferior vena cava
Venous blood from the lower extremities and abdomen drains into the _________________. inferior vena cava
Venous blood drains into the inferior vena cava from what areas? lower extremities and abdomen
In fetal circulation additional vessels are needed to allow fetal blood to secure oxygen and nutrients from ________________ at the placenta. maternal blood
The two umbilical arteries which carry blood to the placenta are extensions of the ________________. internal iliac arteries
The placenta is attached to the ______________. uterine wall
Where does the exchange of oxygen and other substances between the separated maternal and fetal blood occur? placenta
What returns oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus? umbilical vein
The umbilical vein enters the body through the ________________. umbilicus
From the umbilicus, the umbilical vein goes to the undersurface of the ____________. liver
From the liver, the umbilical vein give off 2 or 3 branches and continues as the ______________. ductus venosus
What is the continuation of the umbilical vein which drains into the inferior vena cava? ductus venosus
Where does the ductus venosus drain into? inferior vena cava
In a fetus, what is the opening in the septum between the right and left atria? foramen ovale
In a fetus, what is the small vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending thoracic aorta? ductus arteriosus
When the umbilical cord is cut, what ceases to function? the 2 umbilical arteries, the placenta and the umbilical vein
The umbilical vein within a baby's body becomes the ____________ of the _____________. round ligament, liver
The ductus venosus within a baby's body becomes the ______________ of the _____________. ligamentum venosum, liver
The ductus arteriosus contracts with the establishment of _____________ and becomes the ________________. respiration, ligamentum arteriosum
What is functionally closed shortly after a newborn's first breath and pulmonary circulation is established? foramen ovale
Structural closure of the foramen ovale takes approximately __________. 9 months
At birth the cardiovascular system changes from a _______________ system. placenta dependent
Heart and blood vessel maintain ________________ from childhood through adulthood. basic structure and function
What does exercise thicken in the heart? myocardium
What increases the supply of blood vessels in skeletal muscle tissue? exercise
What is a blockage or weakening of critical arteries? atherosclerosis
In the heart, what can degenerate reducing pumping effeciency? heart valves and myocardial tissue
Created by: K1N1V