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chapter one A&P ONE

an introduction to the structures and functions of the body

anatomy the study of the structure of an organism and the realationships of it's parts( derived from two greek words that mean "a cutting up" )
dissection cutting technique used to separate body parts for study
physiology the study of the functions of living organisims and their parts
disease any significant abnormality in the body's structure or function that disrupts a person's vital function or physical, mental or scocial well being
pathology the scientific study of disease
organization the charecteristic of the body of being organized, that is, structured in different levels of complexity and coordinated in function; the human body is often said to be organized into different levels of organization:chemical, cell, tissue, organ, system,
stuctural levels of organization in the body chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level
cells considered to be the smallest living units of stucture and function in our bodies
tissues an organization of many similar cells that act together to perform a common function
organs a group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that they can act together as a unit to perform a special function
systems are the most complex unit that make up the body( a system is and organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that they can together perform complex functions for the body.)
supine lying face upward
prone lying face downward
superior toward the head, upper or above
inferior toward the feet, lower or below
anterior front or in front of
ventral ( can be used instead of anterior) means toward the belly.
dorsal toward the back ( can be used in place of posterior)
medial toward the midline
lateral toward the side of the body or away from it's midline
proximal toward or nearest the trunk of the body, or nearest the point of origin of one of it's parts.
distal away from or farthest from the trunk or point of origin of a body part
superficial nearer the surface
deep father away from the body surface
sagittal plane or (section) length wise plane running from back to front. it divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides
mid sagittal plane or (section) divides the body length wise into Eaqul halfs
frontal (coronal) length wise plane running from side to side. divides the body or any of its parts in to front and back portions
transverse a hrizontal or cross wise plane. divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower portions
two major body cavities ventral and dorsal
thoracic cavity the upper portion of the ventral cavity( chest cavity)
mediastinum the mid potion of the thoracic cavity
right and left pleural cavityies sub divisions of the thoracic cavities (right and left sides)
abdominopelvic cavity lower part of the ventral cavity. the abdominal and pelvic cavity together, because no physical partition separates them.
diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity(dome shaped, most important muscle for breathing
atrophy a degenerative process in which the there is an generalized decrease in size or a wasting away of many body organs and tissues that affects the structure and function of many body areas
homeostasis the relative constancy of the internal environment
feed back loop a highly complex and intergrated communication control network, classified as negative or positive; negitive feedback loops are the most important and numerous homeostatic control mechanisims
sensor part of a homeostatic feedback loop thats detects (senses) changes in the physiological variable that is regulated by the feedback loop
control center part of the homeostaticfeedback loop that integrates(puts together) setpoint (pre-prgrammed) information with actual sensed information about a physiological variable and then possibly sends out a signal to an effector to change the varible
effector responding organ; for example, voluntary and involuntary muscle, the heart, and glands
negitive feed back loops homeostatic control system in which information feeding back to the control center causes the level of a variable to be changed in the direction opposite to that of the initial stimulus
positive feed back loops homeostatic control system in which information feeding back to the control center causes the level of a variable to be pushed further in the direction of the original deviation, causing an amplification of the original deviation, causing an ampification
(blank) of the original stimulus; ordinarily this mechanism is used by the body to amplify a process and quickly finish it, as in laborcontractions and blood clotting
developmental process chages and functions occuring during the early years (inprove efficiency)
aging process changes and functions occuring after young adulthood(diminishes efficiency)
Created by: sharon fowlkes
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