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Caroline Ch 6 Patho

Patho Chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
acidosis a blood pH of less than 7.35.
acquired immunity A highly specific, inducible, discriminatory, and permanent method by which literally armies of cells respond to an immune stimulant.
activation Medicators of inflammation trigger the appearance of known molecules know as selectins and integrins on the surfaces of endothelial cells and PMNs.
active hyperemia The dialation of arterioles after transient arteroio
adhesion the attachment of PMNs to endothelial cells, mediated by selectins and integrins
adipose tissue a connective tissue containing large amounts of lipids.
alkalosis a blood pH greater than 7.45
allergen any substances that causes hypersensitivity reaction.
allergy hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of an agent that is intrinsically harmless.
anaphylactic shock A severe hypersenitivity reaction that involved brochoconstriction and cardiovascular collapse.
angiogenesis the growth of new blood vessels
antibodies proteins secreted by certain immune cells that bind antigens to make them more visible to the immune system
apoptosis norma, genetically programmed cell death
arthus reaction A localized reaction involving vascular inflamations in respond to igG-mediated allergice response
asthma a chronic inflammatory lower airway condition resulting in intermittent wheezin and excess mucus production.
atopic the medical term for having an allergic tendency.
atrophy a decrease in cell size due to loss of subcellular components.
autoantibodies antibodies directed against the patient.
autocrine hormone a hormone that acts on the cell that has secreted it.
autoimmunity the production of antibodies or T cells that work against the tissues of a person's own body, producing autoimmune disease or hypersensitivity reaction.
autosomal dominant a pattern of inheritance that involved genes that are located on autosomes or the nonsex chromosones. You only need to inherit a single copy of a particular form of a gene to show the trait.
autosomal recessive a pattern of inheritance that involves genes located on autosomes or the non sex chromosomes. You must inherit two copies of a particular form of a gene to show the trait.
axon part of the neuron that conducts the impulses away from the cell body.
basophils approx 1% of leukocytes, they are essential to nonspecific immune response to inflammation due to their role in releasing histamine and other chemicals that dilate blood vessels.
bone marrow specialized tissue found within the bone.
buffers molecules that modulate changes in pH to keep in the physiologic range.
cardiogenic shock condition caused by loss of 40% or more of the functioning myocardium: the heart is no longer able to circulate sufficient blood to maintain adequate oxygen delivery.
cell-mediated immunity immune process by which T-cell lymphomcytes recognize antigens then secrete cytokines (specific lymphokines) that attract other cells or stimulate the production of cytotoxic cells that kill the infected cells.
cell signalling process by which cells communication with one another
central shock a term that described shock secondary to central pump failure, it included both cardiogenic shock and obstructive shock
chemotaxins components of activated complement system that attact leukocytes from the circulation to help fight infections.
coagulation system the system that forms blood clots in the body and facilitates repairs to the vascular tree
complement system a group of plasma proteins whose function is to do one of three things: attract leukocytes to sites of inflammations, activated leukocytes, and directly destroy cells.
connective tissue tissue that serves to bind various tissue types together.
cytokines products of cells that affect functions of other cells.
dendrites part of the neuron that receives impulses from the axon and contains vesicles for release of neurotransmitters.
distributive shock occurs when there is widespread dilation of the resistance vessels (small arterioles), the capacitance vessels (small venules) or both.
dysplasia an alteration in the size, shape and organization of cells.
endocrine hormones hormones that are carried to their target or cell group in the bloodstreams
endothelial cells sepcific types of epithelial cells that service the function of lining the blood vesels.
eosinophils cells that make up !5 to 3% of the leukocytes, which lay a major role in allergic reactions and bronchoconstrction in an asthma attack.
epithellium type of tissue that covers all external surfaces of the body
etiology cause of a disease process
exocrine hormones hormones that are secreted through ducts into an organ or onto epithellial surfaces
feedback inhibition negative feedback resulting in the decrease of an action in the body
fibrin a whitish, filamentous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Fibrin is the protein that polymerizes (bonds) to from the fibrous component of a blood clot.
fibrinolysis cascade breakdowns of fibrin in blood clots, and the prevention of the plymerization of fibrin into new clots
free radicals molecules that are missing on electron on their outer shell
general adaptation syndrome A three stage description of the bodys short term and long term reactions to stress.
gut associated lymphoid tissue the lymphoid tissue that lies under the inner lining of the esophagus and intestines
hapten a substance that normally does not stiumlate in immune response but can be combined with an antigen and at a later point initiate antibody response.
helper T cells a type of t lymphocyte that is involved in both cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses. It secretes cytokines that stiulate the b cells and other T cells.
hemochromatosis an inherited disease in which the body absorbs more iron than it needs and stores it in the liver, kidneys and pancreas.
hemolytic anemia a disease characterized by increase destruction of the red blood cells. It can occur from an Rh factor reaction, exposure to chemicals, or a disorder of the immune system.
hemophilla an inherited sex-linked disorder characterized by excessive bleeding
histamine a vasoactive amine that increase vascular permeabillity and causes vasodialation
homestais is a term derived from Greek words "same" and "steady." All organisims constantly adjust their physiologic processes in an effort to maintain internal balance.
hormones proteins formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same oganism. Hormaones regulate many body functions, including metablosim, grown, and temperature.
humoral immunity The immunity that utilizes antibodies made by B-cell lymphocytes.
hypercalcemia condition in which calcium levels are elevated.
hypercholesterolemia a elevated blood cholesterol level
hyperkalemia an elevated blood serum potassium level.
hypermagnesemia an increased serum magnesium level
hypernatremia a blood serum sodium level elevated.
hyperphosphatemia an elevated blood serum phosphate level.
hyperplasia an increase in the actual number of cells in an organ or tissue, usually resulting in an increase in size of the organ or tissue
hypersensitivity a generic term for bodily responses to substance to which a patient is abnormally sensitive.
hypertonic solution a solution with an osomlarity greater than intracellular solution.
hypertropy an increase in the size of the cells due to sytheseis of more subcellular components, leading to an increase in tissue and organ size.
hypocalcemia a decrease calcium level
hypokalemia a decrease blood serum potassium
hypomagesmia decreased serum magnesium level.
hyponatremia low blood serum sodium level.
hypoperfusion a condition that occurs when the level of tissue perfusion decreases below that needed to maintain normal cellular functions..
hypophosphatemia decreased blood serum phosphate level.
hypothalmic-pituitary-adrena axis (HPA) A major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress. It is the mechanism for a set of interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate the general adaption syndrome.
hypotonic solution a solution wiht an osmolarity lower than intracellular fluid.
hypovolemic shock a condition that occures when the circulating blood volume is inadequate to deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients to the body.
immune response the body's defense reaction to any substance that is recognized as foreign.
immune system the body system includes all of the structures and processes designed to mount a defense against foreign substances and disease-causing agents
immunodeficiency an abnormal condition in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate, and consequently resistance to infection disease is decreased.
immunogen an antigen that activated immune cells to generate an immune response against itself.
immunoglobulins antibodies secreted by the B cells.
incidence the frequency with which a disease occurs
inflammatory response a reaction by tissues of body to irritation or injury, characterized by pain, swelling, redness and heat.
interferon protein produced by cells in response to viral invasion. Iterferon is released into the bloodstream or intercellular fluid to induce healthy cells to manufacture an enzyme that counters the infection.
interleukins chmical substances that attract white blood cells to the sites of injury and bacterial invasion.
isoimmunity formation of antibodies or T cells that are directed against antigens or another person's cells.
isotonic solution a solution with the same osmolarity as intracellular fluid
kinin system a general term for a group of polypeptides that mediate inflammatory response by stimulating visceral smooth musicle and relaxing vascular smooth muscle to produce vasodilation.
leukocytes white blood cells responsible for fighting off infection
leukocytosis elevation of the white blod cell count often due to inflamation
leukotrienes arachiodonic acid metabolites that function as chemical mediators inflammation. Also known as slow-reacting substances to anaphylaxis.
ligand any molecule that binds a receptor leading to a reaction
lymph a thin, watery fluid that bathes the tissues of the body
lymphatic system a network of capillaries, vessels, ducts, nodes and organs that helps to maintain the fluid environment of the body by producing lymph and transporting it through the body
lymphocytes the white blood cells responsible for a large part of the body's immune protection
lymphokines cytokines released by lymphocytes including many of the interleukins, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor beta and chemokines.
macrophages cells that developed from the monocytes that provide the body's first line of defense in the inflammatory system
margination loss of fluid from the blood vessels into the tissue, causing the blood left in the vessels to have increased viscosisty, which in turn slows the flood of blood and produces stasis
mast cells the cells that resement basophils but do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells play a roll in allergic reactions, immunity, and wound healing.
membrane attack complex molecules that insert themselves into the bacterial membrane leading to weakened areas in the membrane
metaplasia a reversible, cellular adaptation in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type.
mitochondria the metabolic center or powerhouse of the cell. They are small and rod-shaped organelles.
monocytes mononuclear phagocytic white blood cells derived from myeloid stem cells. They circulate in the blod streatm for 24 hours and then move into tisues to mature macrophages.
mortallity numbe of deaths from a disease in a given population
mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) the lymphoid tissue associated with the skin and the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive traits as well as the tonsils.
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) a progressive condition usually characterized by combine failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver and kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, which occur after severe illness or injury.
native immunity a nonspecific cellular and humoral response that operates as the body's first line of defense against pathogens
negative feedback the concept that once the desired effect of a process has been achieved, further action i s inhibited unit its needed again; also called feedback inhibition.
neurogenic shock the condition usually results from spinal cord injury. Effect is a loss of normal sympathetic nervous system tone and vasodilation.
neurotransmitters proteins that transmit signal between cells of the nervous system
neutrophils cells that can make up approximately 55% to 70% of the leukocytes responsible in large part of the bod's protection against infection. They are readily attracted by foreign antigens and destroy the by phagocytosis
nucelus a cellular organelle that contains the genetic information. The nucleus control the function and structure of a cell.
obstructive shock this occurs when there is a block of blood flow in the heart or great vessels
oliguria decreased urine output
opsonization occurs when antibody coats an antigen to take is recognition by immune cells
organelles internal cellular structures that carry out specific functions for a cell
osmosis the movement of water down its concentration gradient across a membrane
paracrine hormones hormones that diffuse through intracellular spaces to their target
perfusion the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells, organs, and tissues of the body. Also involves removal of wastes.
pericardial tamponade impairment of diastolic filling of the right ventricle due to significant amounts of fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, leading to a decrease in the cardiac output.
peripheral nerves all of the nerves of the body extending from the brain and spinal cord
peripheral shock a term hat describes shock secondary to peripheral circulatory abnormalities - includes both hypovolemic shock and distributive shock
pH measures of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
phagocyte a kind of cell that engulfs foreign material such as microrganims and debris.
phagocytosis process in which on cell eats on egulfs a foreign substance to destroy it.
phagocytosis prcoess in which on cell eats or englufs a foreign substance to destroy it.
polymorphonuclear neutophils (PMN's) a type of white blood cell formed by bone marrow tissue that possess a nucleaus consiting of several parts or lobes connected by fine strands; a variety of leukocyte
polyuria frequent and plentiful urination
prevalence the number of cases of a disease in a specific population over time.
prostaglandins a group of lipids that act as chemical messengers
pyrogens chemicals or protein that travel to the brain and affect the hypothalmus, and stimulate a rise in the body's core temperature.
renin-angiontensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) a complex feedback mechanism responsible for the kidneys regulation of sodium in the body
Rh factor an antigen present in the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of about 85% of people
ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleic acid associated with controlling cellular activities
septic shock occurs as a result of widespread infection, usually bacterial. Untreated, the result is MODS and often death.
serotonin a vasoactive amine that increase vascular permeability to cause vasoldilation
serum sickness a conditon in which antigen antibody complexes formed in the blood stream deposit in sites around the body, most notably in the kidney, with resultant inflammatory reactions.
slow reacting substances of anaphylaxis biologiacally active compounds derived from arachiodonic acid call leukotrienes
T killer cells cells released during a type IV allergic reaction that kill antigen-bearing target cells
tonicity tension exterted on a cell due to water movement across the cell membrant
tranmigration The PMN's permeate through the vessel wall, moving into the intersitial space
urticaria multiple small, raised areas on the skin that may be one of the warning sings of impening anaphylaxis AKA HIVES
vasculitis inflammation of the blood vessels
vasoactive amines substances such as histamine and serotonin that increase vascular permeability
virulence measure of the disease causing ability of a microorganism.
Created by: moshjarcus