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bios 252 midterm

What is endomysium Surrounds the muscle fiber
What is the epimysium Outside layer of skeletal muscle
What is Perimysium Surrounds muscle fascile
What is sarcoplasm Fluid inside muscle cell (fiber) like cytoplasm
The blood vessels are located where Perimysium
What releases Ca+ into muscle cell Sarcoplasmic reticulum
What do T Tubules do Send message to SR to contract Signal to contract distributed quickly thru interior of muscle cell. These are the start of action potential. Narrow tubes continuous with sarcolemma & extend into sarcoplasm
What line is in the middle of the sarcomere The M Line
What lines is a sarcomere between Two Z lines
The thick filaments are in what band The A band
The thin filaments are in what band The I band
What makes the cross bridge with the Actin Myosin Head
What covers the active sites of the actin molecule Tropomyocin
What is Troponin Attached to tropomyocin and consists of 3 globular subunits; Part of thin filament. One subunit binds to form a tropomyocin –troponin complex.
T or F – as muscle contracts the actin slides by myosin and the Z lines come closer together True
What structure is only found at neuromuscular junctions Junctional folds, increases surface area in muscle cell.
What is ATP needed for in the cross bridge process of striated muscles Detach the cross bridges. ATP binds to myosin head, the link between active site on actin molecule and myosin head is broken
True or false- The optimal resting length of a sarcomere allows for maximal tension True; optimal resting length produces maximal tension
What are the one period and 2 phases after stimulus Latent period comes after stimulus then contraction phase then relaxation phase
What is an isotonic contraction Tensions and rises and muscle length changes. Ie. You have enough tension to lift a heavy weight and hold it there
What is isometric contraction – muscle as a whole does not change length and tension produced never exceeds resistance I.e. not being able to lift a weight at all no matter how hard you try
What is concentric contraction Muscle tension exceeds resistance and muscle shortens
What is eccentric contration Peak tension developed is less than the load and muscle elongates owing to the contraction of another muscle or pull of gravity (tug of war).
See question 15
What are functions of the muscular system Provides movement, generates heat, protection, maintain body position/posture, support soft tissue, guard entrances & exits, nutrient storage
Do any muscles pull and push No! Only pull
What is the definition of parallel as respects Fascicles Fasicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle
What is a fusiform muscle Spindle shaped muscles
What is a pennate muscle Short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle
What is a convergent muscle Fascicles converge from a broad origin to a single tendon insertion
What is a circular muscle Fascicles are arranged in concentric rings
What is a first class lever system Fulcrum is between load and effort
What is a 2nd class lever system Load is between fulcrum and effort
What is a 3rd class lever system Effort is between the fulcrum and the load
In the diaphragm picture the esophageal foramen is in what position Lateral to the aortic foramen
What muscles make up the pelvic diaphragm Pubococcygeus, illiococcygeus & coccygeus (Pubococcygeus & illiococcygeus are also called the levator ani)
What position are the forearms and hands when in the anatomical position Supinated
What muscles form the hamstring (back of thigh) Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus
What muscles form the quadriceps (front of thigh) Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis
The axon hillock is closest to the Initial segment of the axon
True or false – grey matter is also surrounded by myelin True
Does white matter have more or less myelin than grey matter More myelin
What are astrocytes Neuroglia in CNS that supports other neuronal tissue by regulating nutrients, stabilize to prevent injury
What are Oligodendrocytes Form Myelin sheath
What is microglia Migrates thru neural tissue acting like phagocytes destroying debris, waste & pathogens
True or false-At the normal resting potential, an electrical gradient opposes the chemical gradient for K+ TRUE
True or false-At the normal resting potential, chemical and electrical gradients combine to drive Na+ out of the cells False
What is the approximate resting potential in a typical neuron 60-70 mV
True or false - The difference between an absolute refractory period and a relative refractory period is that in the relative refractory period an action potential cannot be generated no matter how large of a stimulus False, this is absolute refractory. During the relative period, resting period closer so possible to start another AP
What causes depolarization of the adjacent portion of the axon membrane to threshold Local currents
We need ____to enter the synaptic knob in order to trigger the exocytosis of acetylcholine Ca++
The postsynaptic membrane is permeable to ____once the acetylcholine binds to receptors and depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane Na +
What is the function of acetylcholinesterase To remove the acetylcholine from the receptor and break the acetylcholine into choline and acetate.
What are some biogenic amine neurotransmitters Histamine, serotonin
What are some amino acid neurotransmitters GABA
What are some neuropeptide neurotransmitters Endorphins, adenosine
What are some hormonal neurotransmitters Oxytocin
What are some gas neurotransmitters Nitric oxide
What is temporal summation Is the addition of stimuli occurring in rapid succession at a SINGLE synapse that is active REPEATEDLY
What is spatial summation Occurs when simultaneous stimuli applied at different locations have a cumulative effect. This involves MULTIPLE SYNAPSES that are active SIMULTANEOUSLY
What is articular cartilage Glassy smooth hyaline cartilage that covers opposing bones surfaces but provides spongy cushions to absorb compression placed on joint and keep bone from being crushed
What are ligaments Helps prevent dislocation; Unite bones &prevent excessive/undesirable movement. more ligaments =stronger it is. Synovial joints are reinforced and strengthened by ligaments. They are thickened parts of fibrous capsule found outside the capsule
What are muscle tendons Resists tension placed on joints. Most important stabilizing factor of a joint is muscle tone. Tendons are kept taut by muscle tone. The tendon is built to withstand tension.
What is articular capsule Strengthens joint so bones are not pulled apart.
What is Synovial fluid Lubricates and keeps joints from overheating
What is a nonaxial range of movement (synovial joints) slipping movements only
What is a Uniaxial range of movement (synovial joints) movement in one plane
What is a Biaxial range of movement (synovial joints) movement in two planes
What is a multiaxial range of movement (synovial joints) Movement in or around all three planes
What are plane joints Non-axial including sacroiliac, intercarpal joints, femoropatellar joint of the knee & proximal tibiofubular joint of knee. Articular surfaces are flat, short gliding or translational movments
What are condyloid joints Bone fits into depression on another bone. Biaxial joints allows all angular movements such as flexion, extension, abduction and adduction and circumduction. Types are radiocarpal (wrist) and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)
What is hinge joint Cylindrical projection fits into a trough shaped surface of another. Uniaxial. Elbow , knee and interphalangeal joints
What is pivot joint Uniaxial; rounded end of one bone protrudes into sleeve of another bone. Only movement is uniaxial rotation. Example is atlas/axis (c1/c2)
What is a saddle joint Resemble condyloid but greater movement. Shaped like a saddle. Carpometacarpal joints of thumbs. (lets twiddle our thumbs)
What is a ball & socket joint Multiaxial. Spherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another. Examples are shoulder and hips
Knuckles Condyloid
Sacroilliac joint Plane
Intercarpal Joints Plane
Femoropatellar joint of the knee Plane
Hip & shoulder joints Ball & socket
Radiocarpal Condyloid (wrist)
Proximal tibiofibular joint Plane
Carpometacarpal joint of thumb Saddle
Elbow , knee and interphalangeal joints Hinge
Joint between c1/c2 (atlas/axis) Pivot
Uniaxial joints pivot, hinge
Biaxial joints Condyloid, (maybe saddle)
Multiaxial joints Ball & socket
Nonaxial joints Plane
What is synchondrosis Immovable joints made of a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage such as epiphyseal plates and joint between coastal cartilage of first rib and Manubrium of sternum.
Created by: rivabard



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