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A&P 2 - E1 - P1

A&P 2 - Exam 1 - Part 1 - Anatomy, Heart

The heart lies in the ____________. mediastinum
The heart lies behind the body of the ___________. sternum
The heart lies between the points of attachment of which ribs? 2 through 6
How much of the heart's mass is to the left of the body midline? two thirds
Posteriorly the heart rests on ____________. thoracic vertebrae 5 through 8
The _________ of the heart lies on the diaphragm, pointing to the left. apex
The base of the heart lies below _______________. the second rib
What is an important clinical aid in diagnosing heart disorders? the boundaries of the heart
At birth the heart is __________ and appears __________ in proportion to the chest. transverse, large
Between _______________________ the heart obtains its adult shape and weight. puberty and 25 years of age
In adults, the heart resembles the shape of the _____________. chest
What is the covering of the heart? pericardium
What is the outermost layer of the pericardium, which is a tough loose fitting inextensible sac? fibrous pericardium
What is the innermost layer of the pericardium which is divided further into two layers? serous pericardium
The serous pericardium is divided into what two layers? parietal and visceral layers
The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also know as what? epicardium
_________________ separates the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium. pericardial space filled with pericardial fluid
The function of the coverings of the heart is to provide protection against ______________. friction
The wall of the heart is made up of what 3 layers? epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What is the outer layer of the heart wall? epicardium
What is the thick, contractile middle layer of the heart wall? myocardium
What layer of the heart wall compresses the heart cavities and the blood within them with great force? myocardium
What layer of the heart wall is the delicate inner layer of endothelial tissue? endocardium
What kind of tissue makes up the endocardium? endothelial
What are the atria also known as? "the receiving chambers"
The atria receive blood from what? veins
The atria alternately contract and relax to receive ___________ and then push it into the _____________. blood, ventricles
What wall of the atria is not very thick, since little pressure is needed to move the blood such a small distance? myocardium
What is an earlike flap protruding from each atrium? auricle
The ventricles are also known as ______________. "pumping chambers"
Ventricular myocardium is ________________ than atria myocardium, since great force must be generated to pump the blood a large distance. thicker
The mycardium of the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle because it must _________________. push blood much further
What are mechanical devices of the heart that permit the flow of blood in only one direction? valves
What prevents blood from flowing back into the atria from the ventricles when the ventricles contract? atrioventricular valves
Which valve guards the right atrioventricular orifice? tricuspid
In the tricuspid valve, the free edges of the three flaps of endocardium are attached to ______________ by _____________. papillary muscle by chordae tendineae
What is the left AV valve? bicuspid/mitral valve
What are the half-moon shaped flaps separating the ventricles from the pulmonary artery and aorta? semilunar valves
The pulmonary semilunar valve is at the entrance of the ______________. pulmonary artery
The aortic semilunar valve is at the entrance of the ________________. aorta
What is a set of connected rings that serve as a semirigid support for the heart valves and for the attachment of cardiac muscle of the myocardium? skeleton of the heart
The skeleton of the heart serves as _________________ between the myocardium of the atria and ventriclea. an electrical barrier
Myocardial cells receive blood from the ____________________. right and left coronary arteries
The coronary arteries are the first branches to come off of the _____________. aorta
Ventricles receive blood from branches of ___________________. both the left and right coronary arteries
Each ventricle receives blood from a ____________ branch of the corresponding coronary artery. small
To which ventricle does the most abundant supply of blood go? left
In what percentage of hearts is the right coronary artery dominant? 50%
In what percentage of hearts is the left coronary artery dominant? 20%
In what percentage of hearts is neither coronary artery dominant? 30%
Few _______________ exist between the larger branches of the coronary arteries. anastomoses
As a rule ____________ follow a course that closely parallels that of ______________. veins, coronary arteries
After going through ____________ blood enters the ______________ to drain into the _______________. cardiac veins, coronary sinus, right atrium
Several veins of the blood supply system of the heart tissue drain directly into the _______________. right atrium
What is the sinoatrial node (SA Node) also known as? the pacemaker
What four structures comprise the conduction system of the heart? sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, Purkinje fibers
Where is the sinoatrial node located? cells in the right atrial wall near the opening of the superior vena cava
What is the atrioventricular node also known as? node of Tawara
Where is the atrioventricular node located? in the right atrium along the lower part of the interatrial septum
What is the atrioventricular bundle also known as? bundle of His
Where does the atrioventricular bundle originate? the atrioventricular node
The atrioventricular bundle extends by two branches down the two sides of the _____________________. interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers extend out to the ________________ and lateral walls of the ventricles. papillary muscles
What are made up of a combination of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers and are located near the arch of the aorta? cardiac plexuses
What are cardiac plexuses made up of? sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
Where are cardiac plexuses located? the arch of the aorta
How do fibers from the cardiac plexus enter the heart? they accompany the left and right coronary arteries
Where do most cardiac plexus fibers end up? sinoatrial node
Other than the sinoatrial node, where else can cardiac plexus fiber end up? atrioventricular node and the atrial mycocardium
What are accelerator nerves known as? sympathetic nerves
What are inhibitory or depressor nerves known as? vagus fibers
Created by: K1N1V