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Integumentary & BM

Integumentary system and Body Membranes

QuestionAnswer
Body membranes Cover surfaces, Line body cavities, Protect and often lubricates organs
Epithelial membranes cover, lines, and protect; epithelial tissue always combined with an underlying layer of connective tissue and Classified as an organ
Membranes are on what level of organization organ level of organization
Cutaneous membrane (skin) superficial epidermis, hardened tissue, dry membrane (exposed to air) Composed of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium
Mucous membrane (mucosa) Lines body cavities open to exterior, moist membrane almost continually bathed in secretions of protective mucous except for urine, adapted for absorption or secretion; Line nasal passages and mouth, respiratory, digestive, urinary, & reproductive tract
lamina propia loose connective tissue that underlies Stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium
Serous membrane Simple squamous epithelium tissue rests on areolar connective tissue; Line closed ventral body cavities, Reduce friction, cushions, protects; parietal layer, serous fluid, visceral layer
Parietal layer lines the wall of ventral cavity
Serous fluid in between the two layers and is secreted by both membranes
Visceral layer lines the outside of the organs in the ventral cavity
Visceral meaning gut or organ, is closer to the organ
Types of serous membranes Peritoneum, Pleura, Pericardium
Peritoneum lines abdominal cavity
Pleura around the lungs; Pleura or pleural means lung
Pleural effusion swelling in the lungs
Pericardium around the heart
Effusion means swelling
Synovial membranes composed of soft areolar connective tissue, no epithelial cells, Line inside of fibrous capsules that surround joints, Smooth surface, Secrete synovial fluid, Cushion during movement; lining of bursae and tendon sheaths
Bursae small sacs of connective tissue that cusions organ movement
tendon sheaths tubelike structure that cushion organs moving against each other; Movement of a tendon across a bone surface
Osteoarthritis (OA) rubbing down articular cartilage
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) autoimmune disease of synovial fluid
Integumentary System the cutaneous membrane (skin) and all appendages (sweat glands, oil glands, hair, nails) are each considered organs that have a Primary role in protection
Integument covering
Keratin (cornified or hardened) is one main components in protection; Aids in preventing water loss
Largest Organ Skin
Integumentary System Functions Protection, regulation of body temperature, excretions (sweat, salts, water), synthesize vitamin D, Sensory receptors
Types of Protection of the Integumentary System Barrier for keeping water and other molecules in the body while keeping unwanted molecules out, insulates and cushions the deeper body organs; Mechanical, chemical, thermal, drying out, ultraviolet, bacterial
Mechanical damage Type of integumentary protection Cushions against bumps, blows, abrasions, pressures, & cuts
Chemical damage Type of integumentary protection Acids and bases
Thermal damage Type of integumentary protection Heat and cold
Drying out (desiccation) Type of integumentary protection Waterproof (glyco-lipid), keratin aids in preventing water loss
Ultraviolet damage (radiation, melanocytes)
Bacterial damage If skin is not penetrated /closed secretions on surface are acidic and inhibit bacteria; If skin is penetrated/open, phagocytes ingest foreign substances and prevent further contact with deeper tissues
Body Temperature Regulation Sweat glands and capillary network; Excretes salts, water, urea and uric acid in form of sweat/perspiration
Vitamin D importance crucial in absorption of calcium
Cutaneous sensory receptors Convey information (touch, pressure, temperature, and pain) about external environment
Skin Structure composed of seven layers, 5 in epidermis and 2 in dermis; hypodermis does not count as a layer
Blister separation between the two layers causing interstitial fluid accumulation; caused by friction or burns
Epidermis Outer 5 layers (sheets “strata”) composed of stratified squamous epithelium containing keratinocytes, capable of keratinizing (become hard/tough) and melanocytes, avascular,
Avascular it has no blood supply of its own
Keratinocytes Keratin cells; produce keratin (tough protein)
Melanocytes special spider-shaped cell produces melanin (a pigment that ranges from yellow, to black, to brown) When skin is exposed to sunlight, cause tanning
Melanin Acts to shield DNA from damaging effects of UV radiation; Freckles and moles are concentrated spots of melanin
Epidermal dendritic cells alert and activate immune system cells to bacteria or viruses
Merkel Cells seen at epidermal-dermal junction, are associated with nerve endings and touch receptors
Stratum corneum Most superficial, dead, completely filled with keratin, 20-30 cell layers thick that account for ¾ of epidermis thickness; Protects deeper layers from hostile environments, biological, chemical and mechanical trauma; prevents water loss
How often is Stratum corneum replaced and how Sheds off as dandruff & Replaced with new epidermis every 25-45 days
Stratum lucidum Clear, Found only where skin is hairless and thick
Stratum granulosum as they move further from dermis and blood supply, become flatter and increasingly more keratinized; After leaving stratum granulosum, the cells die, becoming the next stratum
Stratum spinosum as they move further from dermis and blood supply, become flatter and increasingly more keratinized
Stratum basale “stratum germinativum” most deep, Lies closest to dermis, Constantly dividing producing millions of new cells daily, Contain epidermal cells that receive most nourishment from dermis via diffusion; wavy border, cells push upward
Dermis Dense fibrous connective tissue, containing blood vessels, tear resistant, forms 2 layers, thickness varies; Known as the “hide” of animals; Composed of collagen and elastic fibers as well as phagocytes
Collagen provides toughness, attracts and binds water keeping skin hydrated; type of dense connective tissue
Elastic provides elasticity; type of dense connective tissue
What happens to collagen and elastic as we age both fiber types decrease and the underlying fat decreases
Phagocytes act to prevent bacteria from penetrating deeper into the body
How do Blood vessels assist in temperature regulation If hot, vessels dilate (swell) allowing body heat to radiate from the skin surface; if cold, vessels constrict and blood bypass the dermis capillaries temporarily
Papillary layer more superficial Upper layer of dermis
Dermal papillae uneven, peg-like projections that indent the epidermis; “papillae” finger projections, Contain capillary loops that furnish nutrients to the epidermis, Increases friction & improves gripping; House pain receptors and touch receptors
Fingerprints sweat pores that leave films of sweat in fingertips
Reticular layer Deepest layer of skin; Varies in thickness; Envelope that holds body together; Rich nerve endings; contains blood supply; irregularly arranged connective tissue fibers, blood vessels, sweat glands, oil glands, lamellar corpuscles, and phagocytes
Lamellar Corpuscles deep pain receptors
Linea albicans stretch marks; Skin is not stretching at same rate as internal growth→breaking of reticular layer
What happens when you cut through the dermis You bleed
Subcutaneous Tissue “Hypodermis” layer below dermis formed mostly of adipose tissue; Not considered part of skin; anchors skin to underlying organs; Provides a site for fat storage; Cushions blows (shock absorber); Insulates/assist in temperature control; creates Anatomical curves
Adipose tissue fat tissue
Every Saturday carol liked going shopping because daddy paid routinely epidermis, stratum, corneum, lucidum, Granulosum, spinosum, basale, dermis, papillary, reticular
Melanin (located in epidermis) Gives shades of brown/beige (from melanocytes)
Carotene (located in stratum corneum & subcutaneous tissue) Gives shades of yellow/orange pigment
Hemoglobin (dermal blood vessels) Gives shades of pink/red pigment; dependent on blood count, people who are anemic look more pale
Melanin produced by melanocytes stimulated by sunlight; Ranges from yellow to brown/black; Primarily found in stratum basale; Amount of melanin produced depends on genetics
What happens when Melanin is not equally distributed in skin causes freckles
Erythema (redness) seen in fever, inflammation, allergy, blushing, high blood pressure
Pallor (paleness) seen in anemia, fear, stress, low blood pressure; Capillaries are constricting blood flow to internal organs
Jaundice (yellow) seen in Liver problems, babies – elevated bilirubin
Cyanosis (blue) Poor oxygen content in blood, seen in Heart and lung diseases
Bruising (black and blue) Seen in Vitamin C deficiency, Hemophilia (don’t clot well), Medications (blood thinner)
Hematomas Blood escaped from vessels and has clotted in tissue spaces due to trauma
Skin Appendages Glands, Hair, Nails (all are organs); Derivatives of the epidermis; Extend into dermis originating in stratum basale and dive down into reticular layer
Cutaneous Glands exocrine glands
Exocrine glands releases substances to surface of skin via ducts; formed in stratum basale and push deeper in order to reside in dermis where there is a better blood supply (source of nourishment)
Two types of exocrine glands Sebaceous glands & sweat glands
Sebaceous glands (Oil glands) Usually empty into a hair follicle; Product of oil onto root of hair; Found all over except palms of hands and soles of feet; Produce sebum
sebum Greasy, oily substance that Lubricates skin/hair; Contain chemicals that kill bacteria and Prevent hair from becoming brittle
Sweat glands “suderiferous gland” gland that secretes sweat (2.5 million glands per person), eccrine glands, appocrine galnds
2 types of sweat glands Eccrine Glands & appocrine glands
Eccrine glands Secretes sweat that reaches skin via duct (Water, salts, metabolic waste, lactic acid); Very numerous, Found all over body; Important in efficiently regulating body temp, activated in high temperatures
Duct funnel-shaped pore
Appocrine glands Secrete sweat containing fatty acids and proteins, odor caused by bacteria, Concentrated in axillary and genital areas, Larger than eccrine glands, Ducts empty into hair follicles, activated during pain, stress, and sexual foreplay
Androgens (male sex hormones) influence function of appocrine glands
Hair Flexible epithelial structure almost entirely composed of keratinized/dead protein produced by hair follicle, Formed by stratum basale epithelial cells called matrix (growth zone), fastest growing tissue in the body
Functions of hair Insulates in cold weather, Protects from foreign particles out of eyes (eyelashes) and out of respiratory tract (nose hairs)
Root of hair part of hair enclosed in hair follicle
Shaft of hair part projecting to surface
Medulla central core of hair
Cortex surrounds medulla (middle layer) in hair
Cuticle (Hair) single layer of scale-like cells that surrounds cortex; Heavily keratinized; Keeps individual hairs separated; Wears away at end “split ends”
Melanocyte in hair bulb produce pigment to determine hair color
Arrector Pili Muscles Small bands of smooth muscle connecting hair to dermal tissue; Causes slanting of hair, Contracts when we are afraid or cold (Pulls hair straight); Insulates animals in winter; Scares enemies of animals
Nails Protects ends of fingers and toes (Corresponds to claws of animals); Colorless but looks pink due to underlying blood supply, Stratum basale extends underneath the nail bed; As cells are produced by matrix, they become keratinized and die
Poor circulation of nail nail tips look purple
Lunula white base on nail, white moon
Nail body pink part
Free edge part you clip off
cuticle (nail) rim of skin
Created by: alechsu