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Anatomy Tissue

Tissues and stuff

Tissue a group of cells that are similar in structure and function
Four primary tissue types Nervous (control), Muscular (movement), Connective (support, Gives framework and glue), Epithelium (cover, Protection, absorption, filtration and secretion)
Organ two or more tissue composed to perform a common function; The arrangement of an organ’s tissues determines its structure and its function
Neurons specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit electrochemical impulses; Receive and conduct impulses via electrochemicals from one part of the body to another; sight, touch, smell, sound; Cell body with processes called dendrites and axons
Two major functions of Neurons Excitability “irritability” and conductivity
Dendrites receive signal impulses
Axons send signal impulses
Neuroglia protect, insulate, and support the neurons
Muscle Tissue highly specialized to contract (shorten) to produce movement
Three types of muscle tissue Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Skeletal muscle attached to skeleton, Voluntarily controlled, form the flesh, Contracts quickly to produce movement
Skeletal muscle Cells “muscle fibers” Multinucleated (Multiple nuclei), Long, cylindrical shape, Look like a straw, cylinder, with striations
Cardiac muscle Found only in the heart, Involuntary, Striated, Uninucleated, Short, branching cells that fit tightly (like clasped fingers) at intercalated discs that jump start contractions, Contracts quickly, Propels blood through blood vessels,
Smooth “Visceral” muscle Involuntary without striations, 1 nucleus, spindle shaped, contracts slowly and is found in walls of hollow visceral organs, organs constrict and dilate with contractions to propel substances along a specific pathway Stomach, uterus, and blood vessels
Intercalated Discs gap junctions in the heartthat allow ions to pass freely
Peristalsis wavelike motion that keeps food moving through small intestine
Connective Tissue Connects body parts & protects, supports, and binds together other tissues, bears weight and force, withstand force and stretching abuse
Variations in blood supply While most tissues are well vascularized (good blood supply) tendons, ligaments have a poor blood supply and cartilages are avascular making them slower to heal because of the lack of nutrients
Extracellular matrix Non-living structureless ground substance and fibers found outside cells
Ground substance mostly water and adhesion proteins (glues connective tissue cells to fibers), and large charged polysaccharide molecules (traps water)
Fibers collagen fibers (high tensile strength, white fibers), elastic fibers (stretch and recoil, yellow fibers), reticular fibers (internal skeleton of soft organs, “very fine collagen fibers”)
Bone “Osseous tissue” Exceptional ability to protect and support other body organs
Osteocytes mature bone cells sit inside lacunae and surrounded by very hard matrix of calcium salts (hardness) and collagen fibers
Cartilage a resilient, semi-rigid form of connective tissue, with no blood supply
Chondrocytes “Cartilage cells” mature cartilage cells occur singly or in groups in spaces called lacunae; A dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate, a jelly like intercellular matrix
Collagen strength
Chondroitin resilience
Three types of cartilage Which is most abundant? Hyaline Carilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic Cartilage Hyaline Cartilage
Hyaline “glass” Cartilage rubbery, made for support and flexibility Collagen fibers and rubbery matrix; Smooths the ends of the bones, endures a lot of rubbing abuse; Joints, ends of bones, ventral ends of ribs, nose, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic skeleton
Fibrocartilage Highly compressible, Combines strength and rigidity, found where there’s a lot of pressure on both sides; bundles of collagenous fibers; Found in disks of the spinal column, menisci of knee, symphysis pubis
Elastic Cartilage Strong and elastic, Tolerates repeated bending, found in structures with elasticity, Made of elastin; Matrix is a threadlike network of elastic fibers; Found in epiglottis and external ear
Dense connective tissue “Dense fibrous tissue” made up of collagen fibers and rows of fibroblasts, forming strong ropelike structures found in lower layers of skin (dermis), tendons, and ligaments
Fibroblasts fiber forming cells found between rows of collagen, manufacture the building blocks of fiber
Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones
Ligaments connect bones to bones at joints, stretchy & more elastic fibers then tendon
Loose connective tissue soft and pliable, has more cells & fewer fibers, Cushions & protects
Areolar tissue most widely distributed connective tissue variety, soft, pliable, “cobwebby”, cushions and protects internal organs, functions as a universal packing tissue and “glue”; Holds internal organs together and in proper positions
Lamina propria soft layer of areolar tissue that underlies all mucous membranes; Provides a reservoir of water and salts (nutrients) for nearby tissues
Edema when the areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid when inflamed (causes swelling)
Phagocytes scavenge for bacteria, dead cells, and debris to destroy in this tissue
Adipose tissue (fat) areolar tissue in which adipose cells “signet ring cells” predominate; protects and insulates the body from bumps and extremes of temperature
Reticular connective tissue forms framework (stroma “bed” or “mattress”) of reticular fibers which can support many free blood cells (largely lymphocytes) for lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow
Blood “Vascular tissue” consists of blood cells surrounded by a matrix of non-living plasma; “Fibers” of blood are soluble protein molecules, visible during blood clotting; Transport medium for the cardiovascular system; Carries nutrients, wastes, respiratory gases, etc
Blood is an Atypical tissue because there are living cells in a nonliving matrix
Epithelial Tissue The lining and covering of the body and all free body surfaces; Includes glandular tissue; No blood supply of their own “avascular” and depend on diffusion Regenerate easily (because of diffusion);
Primary functions of epithelial tissue protection, absorption, filtration, secretion; Cells fit closely together in sheets with tight junctions or desmosomes in between
Apical Surface layer one free surface is exposed to the body’s exterior or cavity of an internal organ (apex)
Simple epithelium one layer of cells
Stratified epithelium more than one layer of cells
Squamous cells flattened
Cuboidal cells cube-shaped
Columnar cells column-shaped
Simple epithelia deal with absorption, secretion, and filtration; Very thin layer; Think
Simple squamous epithelium single layer of squamous cells resting on a basement membrane like floor tiles; Air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries, serous membranes lining ventral cavity, and serosae; Rapid diffusion
Simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of cuboidal (thicker) cells resting on a basement membrane; Glands and ducts(salivary), walls of kidney tubules, surface of ovaries
Simple columnar epithelium single layer of tall, column-like cells resting on a basement membrane; Lining of entire digestive tract, mucous membranes “mucosae” of open cavities
Examples of Epithelial Tissue skin, lining of body cavities, lining of respiratory tract, lining of digestive tract(stomach, intestines)
Goblet cells lubricating, mucous producing
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium columnar cells resting on a basement membrane but some are shorter than other cell nuclei appear to be at different heights; Falsely appears to be stratified; Absorption and secretion; Lining of respiratory tract (ciliated version)
Stratified epithelia two or more layers that are more durable (can take more abrasion and friction) and function to protect from trauma; Named by the shape of the cells on the top layer
Stratified squamous epithelium free edge cells are squamous, whereas the lower layers closer to the basement membrane are cuboidal or columnar; Receive a lot of abuse and friction; Esophagus, mouth, outer layer of skin
Most common stratified epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified cuboidal epithelium two layers with cuboidal cells at surface
Stratified columnar epithelium columnar shaped cells but the lowest layer of cells vary in size and shape; Ducts of large glands
Transitional epithelium highly modified stratified squamous layers; Lowest layer
Gland one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product
Secretion product of gland that contains protein molecules in a water-based “aqueous” fluid; Oil, perspiration, mucus, digestive enzymes, hormones
Two types of glands endocrine & exocrine
Endocrine Glands lose their connection to the surface (duct) “ductless” and secrete hormones that diffuse directly into the bloodstream; Thyroid, pituitary, ovaries, testes, adrenals
Exocrine glands can be either internal and external release secretions through ducts of the epithelial surface; Liver, pancreas, sweat glands, oil glands
Created by: alechsu



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