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Cells info

cells in anatomy

Cell Theory A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms; The activity of an organism depends on the collective activities of its cells
Principle of complementarity biochemical activities of cells are dictated by the relative number of their specific subcellular structures
Cell Diversity More than 200 different cell types; structure drives function; Differ in size and shape, function, various organelles
Generalized cell Nucleus, Cytoplasm, plasma membrane
Nucleus control center and contains genes, contains nuclear envelope, nucleoli
Nuclear envelope double membrane barrier with nuclear pores, and a fluid space between the two membranes allowing some but not all substances to pass, encloses the nucleoplasm
Nucleoli where ribosomes are assembled
Chromatin DNA and protein mix
Cytoplasm the site of most cellular activities containing cytosol, organelles and inclusions
Cytosol semitransparent fluid that suspends other elements
Organelles metabolic machinery, synthesize proteins, package proteins, etc.
Mitochondria carry out reactions using oxygen to break down foods, produce ATP
Ribosomes site of protein synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell’s membrane factory
Endoplasmic reticulum Provides a network of channels for carrying substances
Smooth ER lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides
Golgi apparatus traffic director for cellular proteins, modifies and packages proteins
Lysosomes digest waste material
Peroxisomes contains enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances, disarm dangerous free radicals, reactive chemicals that can scramble the structure of proteins
Cytoskeleton protein fibers; cilia; flagella
Cilia immobile, have tails, that move stuff
Flagella mobile and propel stuff through cells
Inclusions stored nutrients
Plasma membrane the cell membrane that controls what enters and exits the cell
Tight junctions impermeable
Desmosomes anchoring junctions
Gap junctions allow communication
Created by: alechsu