Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

A&P ch 1,2,3,parts4

anatomy and physiology

Organization of living things-atoms to organism Atom,Molecules,Organelles,Cells, Tissue, Organ System, Organism: AMOCTOSO
-Catabolism -Anabolism Metabolism Cata: breaking down Ana: build UP Meta: sum total of all chem. processes
Auto regulation (INTRINSIC) automatic response in a CELL, TISSUE, or ORGAN
EXTRINSIC regulation responses controlled by NERVOUS & ENDOCRINE system
(+)POSITIVE feedback response of the effector REINFORCES the stimulus
(-)NEGATIVE feedback response of the effector NEGATES the stimulus
What makes up 95% of the human body? COHN: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Tell me about atoms and what they are made of? smallest unit of element -in atom: (+)proton,(0) neutron,(-) electron
How to find atomic mass? sum of the masses of protons & electron
Isotopes -iso=same -atom that has a different # of neutrons -ex)Carbon12:p6,n6,e6--C 13:p6,n7,e6--C 14:p6,n8,e6
What do orbitals hold and where do you find it? -area around a nucleus where an electron is most likely found. -electrons can absorb and release energy
(+)Cation more protons(cats r positive,so r protons)
(-)Anion more electrons
What happens in Oxidation & Reduction? Oxidation: LOSS of electron Reduction: GAIN of electron
molecule a group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association->Oxy2
compound 2 or more group of atoms bonf together->NaCl(salt)
Ionic Bond formed b/c ions of opposite charge attract 1 another->salt: Sodium Na+ & Chlorine Cl-
Covalent Bonds formed by 2 or more atoms share pairs of valence elections
Hydrogen Bonds -in water molecule -both Oxygen & Hydrogen attact to share electrons in covalent bond (electronegativity) -easy to break/make
Chemical Reaction Occurs during the formation or breaking of chem. bonds
Energy the POWER to do WORK
WORK a change in MASS or DISTANCE
Kinetic Energy Energy in motion(ball going down the stairs)
Potential Engergy Stored energy(ball at top of stairs)
Activation energy -gets a reaction started -enzymes(protein): proteins that lower the activation energy of a reaction.less E,less time
Exergonic reaction: Endogonic reaction: Exergonic: produces more energy Endogonic: uses more energy
Organic & INorganic molecules -organic: based on carbon(C)&hydrogen(H) -INorganic: NOT based on C,H
Essential Molecules Nutrients: essential molecules obtained from FOOD Metabolites: molecules made or broken down in the body
Properties of WATER Solubility:water's ability to dissolve a solute(salt) in a solvent(water) to make a solution(salt water) -Reactivity: body chem uses or occurs in WATER -High Heat capacity: ability to absorb&retain heat -Lubrication: moisten & reduce friction
Electrolytes -INorganic ion -conduct electricity in solution
Hydrophilic -hydro=water -philic=loving -reacts with water
Hydrophobic -phobic=fear -does NOT react with water
Types of Solutions -Colloid: very lg.organic molecule -Suspension: particles settle(sediment) -Concentration: amt. of solute(salt) in slvent(salt)-> mol/L, mg/mL
pH Acid(acidic):pH lower than 7.0(1,2,3,4,5,6) -high H+ concentration Base(basic):pH higher than -high OH- concentration 7.0(8,9,10,11,12,13,14)
Carbohydrates FUNCTIONS Monosaccharides: energy source Disaccharides: energy source Polysaccharides: storage of glucose
Carbohydrates TYPES -Monosaccharides: simple sugars 3-7 carbon atoms (glucose) -Diacccharides: 2 simple sugars condensed by dehydration synthesis(sucrose)=glucose+glucose -Polysaccharides: chain of many simple sugars(glycogen)
Lipids Types -Fatty Acids -Eicosanoids -Glycerides -Steriods -Phospholipids & Glycolipids
Lipid Functions -Fatty Acids: energy source -Eicosanoids: chem. messenger -Glycerides: E source/storage,insulation, physical protection
Lipid Function cont... -Steriods: structural component of cell mem,hormones,digestive secretion in bile -Phospholipids & Glycolipids: structural component of cell mem.
Protein Function 1,2,3 -structural protein -contractile protein -transport protein
Protein Function 4,5,6,7 -buffering: reg. of pH -metabolic reg.: enzymes -hormones -antibodies
Enzyme(protein) characteristics Specificity: -1 enzyme catalyzes 1 reaction Saturation limits: -an enzyme's max work rate Regulation: -the ability to turn off & on
Enzyme function Catalyst:lower activation E of chem. reaction -NOT changes/used up in reaction
Protein characteristics -organic molecule -Basic element: COHN -basic building block: 20 amino acids
Nucleic Acid -lg. organic molecule -in nucleus -store & process info. at molecular level -DNA & RNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) -determine inherited characteristic -direct protein synthesis -control enzyme production -control metabolism
RNA (ribonnucleic acid) -codes intermediate steps in protein synthesis
DNA Bases: -adenine(A) -thymine(T) -cytosine(C) -guanine(G)
RNA Bases: -uracil(U)...replaces thymine(T)
Nucleotides -building blocks of DNA
Nucleotides parts Have 3 molecular parts: -sugar(deoxyribose) -phosphate group -nitrogenous base: A,G,T,C
Somatic Cells soma=body
Cytoskeleton structrual protein for shape & strength -In Microfilaments -In Microtubules
Microvilli -increase surface area for absorption -the finger looking wiggly thing in a cell -attached to cytoskeleton -
Ribosomes -builds polypeptides in protein syn. -2 types: free ribosomes in cytoplasm fixed ribosomes attached to ER
ER (endoplasmic reticulum) endo plasm reticulum endo=within.. plama=cytoplasm.. reticulum=network
Golgi Apparatus -Secretory Vesicle -Membrane renewal -Transport vesicle
Lysosomes lyso=dissovlve__soma=body formed by Golgi, digestive enzymes, ejects secretory product & wastes
Mitochondria -produces ATP(energy -takes chem. E from food(glucose) -cristae form walls
Phospholipid bilayer Has a... Tail: hydrophobic Head: hydrophilic
Nucleus -DNA -Nucleoplasm -Nuclear matrix
DNA organization -Nucleosomes -Chromatin -Chromosomes
Genes -DNA instruction for 1 protein Code: A, T, C, G 3 bases= 1 amino acid
Selective Permeability Allows some materials to move freely but restricts other materials
Protein Synthesis steps This is how DNA instructions become protein. Using: Transcription, Translation, Processing
TranSCRPITion copies instructions from DNA to mRNA(in nucleus)
ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Function Function -syn. of protein,carbohydrates,lipids -storage of synthesized mole. & material -transport w/in ER -Detoxification of drugs/toxin
TranSLATion Template serves as a series of codes for the amino acid sequence of the protein
3 Categories of Transport -Diffusion(passive) -Carrier-mediated transport(passive or active) -Vasicular transport(active)
7 methods of transport -Diffusion, active transport -osmosis, carrier-mediated,2nd active transport, exocytosis
Factors Affecting Diffusion Distance, Molecule size, Temp, Gradient size
Diffusion types Simple:diffuse through cell membrane Channel-Mediated:materials pass through transmembrane protein(channels)
Osmosis Must have water. Freely permeable to water, selectively permeable to solutes
Tonicity-iso iso=same__tonos=tention Solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell
Tonicity-hypo hypo=less Has less solutes on outside. Gains water through osmosis.
Tonicity-hyper hyper=more Has more solutes on the outside.
Carrier-meadiated Transport Carries proteins passively transport solutes across a membrane down a concentration gradient
Cotransport 2 substances move in the same direction at the same time
Countertransport 1 substance moves in while another moves out
receptor mediated endocytosis receptors (glyco proteins) bind targert molecules(ligands).coated vesicle(endosome) carries ligands & recepptors into the cell
Active Transport -move substances AGAINST concentration gradient -requires E -ion pump
Exocytosis & Endocytosis Exo=out of Endo=into, active transport using ATP
Pinocytosis Drinking Cell, drinks extracellular fluids
Phagocytosis Eating Cell, engulfs large objects in phagosomes
Cell Cycle P.M.A.T
Mitosis Distribution of duplicated chromosomes into 2 daughter cells
Chromosome the 'X'
Chromatid Half of the 'X'__<
Centermere the middle(button)
Cytokinesis division of the cell. Animal cells:occures by constriction of actin fibers. Plant cell: occurs by synthesis if cell plant.
Secondary Active Transport Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport
Created by: MReyes14