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A&P ch 1,2,3,parts4

anatomy and physiology

Organization of living things-atoms to organism Atom,Molecules,Organelles,Cells, Tissue, Organ System, Organism: AMOCTOSO
-Catabolism -Anabolism Metabolism Cata: breaking down Ana: build UP Meta: sum total of all chem. processes
Auto regulation (INTRINSIC) automatic response in a CELL, TISSUE, or ORGAN
EXTRINSIC regulation responses controlled by NERVOUS & ENDOCRINE system
(+)POSITIVE feedback response of the effector REINFORCES the stimulus
(-)NEGATIVE feedback response of the effector NEGATES the stimulus
What makes up 95% of the human body? COHN: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Tell me about atoms and what they are made of? smallest unit of element -in atom: (+)proton,(0) neutron,(-) electron
How to find atomic mass? sum of the masses of protons & electron
Isotopes -iso=same -atom that has a different # of neutrons -ex)Carbon12:p6,n6,e6--C 13:p6,n7,e6--C 14:p6,n8,e6
What do orbitals hold and where do you find it? -area around a nucleus where an electron is most likely found. -electrons can absorb and release energy
(+)Cation more protons(cats r positive,so r protons)
(-)Anion more electrons
What happens in Oxidation & Reduction? Oxidation: LOSS of electron Reduction: GAIN of electron
molecule a group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association->Oxy2
compound 2 or more group of atoms bonf together->NaCl(salt)
Ionic Bond formed b/c ions of opposite charge attract 1 another->salt: Sodium Na+ & Chlorine Cl-
Covalent Bonds formed by 2 or more atoms share pairs of valence elections
Hydrogen Bonds -in water molecule -both Oxygen & Hydrogen attact to share electrons in covalent bond (electronegativity) -easy to break/make
Chemical Reaction Occurs during the formation or breaking of chem. bonds
Energy the POWER to do WORK
WORK a change in MASS or DISTANCE
Kinetic Energy Energy in motion(ball going down the stairs)
Potential Engergy Stored energy(ball at top of stairs)
Activation energy -gets a reaction started -enzymes(protein): proteins that lower the activation energy of a reaction.less E,less time
Exergonic reaction: Endogonic reaction: Exergonic: produces more energy Endogonic: uses more energy
Organic & INorganic molecules -organic: based on carbon(C)&hydrogen(H) -INorganic: NOT based on C,H
Essential Molecules Nutrients: essential molecules obtained from FOOD Metabolites: molecules made or broken down in the body
Properties of WATER Solubility:water's ability to dissolve a solute(salt) in a solvent(water) to make a solution(salt water) -Reactivity: body chem uses or occurs in WATER -High Heat capacity: ability to absorb&retain heat -Lubrication: moisten & reduce friction
Electrolytes -INorganic ion -conduct electricity in solution
Hydrophilic -hydro=water -philic=loving -reacts with water
Hydrophobic -phobic=fear -does NOT react with water
Types of Solutions -Colloid: very molecule -Suspension: particles settle(sediment) -Concentration: amt. of solute(salt) in slvent(salt)-> mol/L, mg/mL
pH Acid(acidic):pH lower than 7.0(1,2,3,4,5,6) -high H+ concentration Base(basic):pH higher than -high OH- concentration 7.0(8,9,10,11,12,13,14)
Carbohydrates FUNCTIONS Monosaccharides: energy source Disaccharides: energy source Polysaccharides: storage of glucose
Carbohydrates TYPES -Monosaccharides: simple sugars 3-7 carbon atoms (glucose) -Diacccharides: 2 simple sugars condensed by dehydration synthesis(sucrose)=glucose+glucose -Polysaccharides: chain of many simple sugars(glycogen)
Lipids Types -Fatty Acids -Eicosanoids -Glycerides -Steriods -Phospholipids & Glycolipids
Lipid Functions -Fatty Acids: energy source -Eicosanoids: chem. messenger -Glycerides: E source/storage,insulation, physical protection
Lipid Function cont... -Steriods: structural component of cell mem,hormones,digestive secretion in bile -Phospholipids & Glycolipids: structural component of cell mem.
Protein Function 1,2,3 -structural protein -contractile protein -transport protein
Protein Function 4,5,6,7 -buffering: reg. of pH -metabolic reg.: enzymes -hormones -antibodies
Enzyme(protein) characteristics Specificity: -1 enzyme catalyzes 1 reaction Saturation limits: -an enzyme's max work rate Regulation: -the ability to turn off & on
Enzyme function Catalyst:lower activation E of chem. reaction -NOT changes/used up in reaction
Protein characteristics -organic molecule -Basic element: COHN -basic building block: 20 amino acids
Nucleic Acid -lg. organic molecule -in nucleus -store & process info. at molecular level -DNA & RNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) -determine inherited characteristic -direct protein synthesis -control enzyme production -control metabolism
RNA (ribonnucleic acid) -codes intermediate steps in protein synthesis
DNA Bases: -adenine(A) -thymine(T) -cytosine(C) -guanine(G)
RNA Bases: -uracil(U)...replaces thymine(T)
Nucleotides -building blocks of DNA
Nucleotides parts Have 3 molecular parts: -sugar(deoxyribose) -phosphate group -nitrogenous base: A,G,T,C
Somatic Cells soma=body
Cytoskeleton structrual protein for shape & strength -In Microfilaments -In Microtubules
Microvilli -increase surface area for absorption -the finger looking wiggly thing in a cell -attached to cytoskeleton -
Ribosomes -builds polypeptides in protein syn. -2 types: free ribosomes in cytoplasm fixed ribosomes attached to ER
ER (endoplasmic reticulum) endo plasm reticulum endo=within.. plama=cytoplasm.. reticulum=network
Golgi Apparatus -Secretory Vesicle -Membrane renewal -Transport vesicle
Lysosomes lyso=dissovlve__soma=body formed by Golgi, digestive enzymes, ejects secretory product & wastes
Mitochondria -produces ATP(energy -takes chem. E from food(glucose) -cristae form walls
Phospholipid bilayer Has a... Tail: hydrophobic Head: hydrophilic
Nucleus -DNA -Nucleoplasm -Nuclear matrix
DNA organization -Nucleosomes -Chromatin -Chromosomes
Genes -DNA instruction for 1 protein Code: A, T, C, G 3 bases= 1 amino acid
Selective Permeability Allows some materials to move freely but restricts other materials
Protein Synthesis steps This is how DNA instructions become protein. Using: Transcription, Translation, Processing
TranSCRPITion copies instructions from DNA to mRNA(in nucleus)
ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Function Function -syn. of protein,carbohydrates,lipids -storage of synthesized mole. & material -transport w/in ER -Detoxification of drugs/toxin
TranSLATion Template serves as a series of codes for the amino acid sequence of the protein
3 Categories of Transport -Diffusion(passive) -Carrier-mediated transport(passive or active) -Vasicular transport(active)
7 methods of transport -Diffusion, active transport -osmosis, carrier-mediated,2nd active transport, exocytosis
Factors Affecting Diffusion Distance, Molecule size, Temp, Gradient size
Diffusion types Simple:diffuse through cell membrane Channel-Mediated:materials pass through transmembrane protein(channels)
Osmosis Must have water. Freely permeable to water, selectively permeable to solutes
Tonicity-iso iso=same__tonos=tention Solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell
Tonicity-hypo hypo=less Has less solutes on outside. Gains water through osmosis.
Tonicity-hyper hyper=more Has more solutes on the outside.
Carrier-meadiated Transport Carries proteins passively transport solutes across a membrane down a concentration gradient
Cotransport 2 substances move in the same direction at the same time
Countertransport 1 substance moves in while another moves out
receptor mediated endocytosis receptors (glyco proteins) bind targert molecules(ligands).coated vesicle(endosome) carries ligands & recepptors into the cell
Active Transport -move substances AGAINST concentration gradient -requires E -ion pump
Exocytosis & Endocytosis Exo=out of Endo=into, active transport using ATP
Pinocytosis Drinking Cell, drinks extracellular fluids
Phagocytosis Eating Cell, engulfs large objects in phagosomes
Cell Cycle P.M.A.T
Mitosis Distribution of duplicated chromosomes into 2 daughter cells
Chromosome the 'X'
Chromatid Half of the 'X'__<
Centermere the middle(button)
Cytokinesis division of the cell. Animal cells:occures by constriction of actin fibers. Plant cell: occurs by synthesis if cell plant.
Secondary Active Transport Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport
Created by: MReyes14



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