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NEU 220 Vision 1

Visual system: Stimulus to Eye

Visible spectrum 400-700nm
Light is studied as both a ___ and a ___. Wave and particle.
Light information is processed in which direction? Back to front.
Where refraction occurs within the eye. The lens and cornea.
Accomodation Focusing an image by changing the shape of the lens.
Ciliary muscles Change the shape of the lens.
Near point The distance from the eye at which the eye cannot focus on objects.
Presbyopia Near point increases with age.
Emmetropia Good vision
Myopia Poor vision due to the focus point coming up short from the back of the retina.
Hyperopia Poor vision due to the focus point landing beyond the back of the retina.
Astigmatism Misshapen lens; focusing ability varies based on retinal location.
Signaling pathway Photoreceptors -> Bipolar cells -> Ganglion cells
Photoreceptor Cell that detects and receives light.
Types of photoreceptors Rods and Cones
Rods Detect and receive photons of light
Outer segment Part of rod made up of discs that receives photons.
Rodopsin Specialized types detect specific wavelengths of light.
Retinal molecule Part of visual pigment molecule; changes shape when struck with light, starting an enzyme cascade.
Dark current No light present; Na channels open, Na flows in; cell is depolarized.
Light current Light present; Na channels close; cell is hyperpolarized.
Graded signaling Action potentials are not being fired.
Receptive field Point in space from which photoreceptors receive light
Ideal stimulus Light large enough to fill entire receptive field
Center-surround receptive field When the ideal stimulus size is that which takes up the center of the receptive field, with no light around the outer rim.
Convergence When a ganglion cell receives input from several rods or cones at once.
Spatial summation Process by which rods detect multiple photons and add them together
Fovia Part of the macula where there are very few rods, and a high concentration of cones.
What happens when light stimulus is too large for center-surround receptive field? Light around edges of receptive field causes photoreceptors to send inhibitory signals to ganglion cells.
Hubel & Wiesel Studied receptive fields in cerebral cortex; found it to be vertical bar across center fields.
Ganglion cell Cell that receives light information from photoreceptors.
Created by: pichelle
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