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Integument - Skin

Layers and Properties

Stratum Corneum 1. TOPMOST of EPIDERMIS - Stratified Squamous over Cuboidal epithelium DEAD, dehydrated, "Keratinized" squamous cells, constantly shed
Stratum Lucidum 2. "clear" Squamous cells only in palms, lips, and soles
Stratum Granulosum 3. "granular" cells nuclei disintegrate - cells are dying
Stratum Spinosum 4. spiny cells interlocked by Protein filaments multi-sided (puzzle piece)
Stratum Germinativum 5. DEEPEST of EPIDERMIS - "germinating", actively dividing Cuboidal cells Melanocytes: form and distribute melanin pigment
Dermis thick CONNECTIVE tissue contains Receptors, Hair Folicles, Sweat and Sebaceous Glands
Papillary Layer UPPERMOST of DERMIS - AREOLAR tissue containing blood capillaries and nerves provides friction ridges (FINGER PRINTS)
Reticular Layer DEEPEST of DERMIS - DENSE IRREGULAR connective tissue made of Collagen and Elastin provides STRENGTH and FLEXIBILITY
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis) BENEATH DERMIS - Simple AREOLAR tissue and ATIPOSE for FAT STORAGE and ATTACHMENT to underlying muscle tissue
Nails KARITINIZED PLATES of flat EPIDERMAL cells Grasping, Manipulation, Protection
Hair KARITINIZED epithelial TUBES with a hollow core - pigmented cortex (melanin) determines hair color follicle supplied with ARRECTOR PILI muscle - SENSATION and THERMAL insulation
Sebaceous Glands arise from the walls of HAIR FOLLICLES product: SEBUM - regulated by: SEX HORMONES - coats/SEALS Hair and Epidermis
Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands coiled epithelial tubes product: SWEAT (water, NaCl and metabolic waste) - regulated by: TEMPERATURE and PSYCHOLOGICAL factors
Thermoregulation Heat Conservation or Loss at skins surface TO regulate body TEMPERATURE
Vasodilation MORE blood flows more HEAT LOST
Vasoconstriction less BLOOD FLOWS to KEEP HEAT
Absorption Function of the Skin (uptake limited due to waxy SEBUM and KERITINIZATION) some diffusion of GASES and FAT-soluble drugs
Hydro-regulation Function of the Skin guards against WATER LOSS or GAIN
Protection Function of the Skin - 2 occlusive BARRIERS: Chemical Barrier: SEBUM, KERATIN, and MELANIN - Physical Barrier: Stratum CORNEUM and HAIR Protection Against: BACTERIA, PARASITES, U.V. RADIATION, NOXIOUS CHEMICALS, and FRICTION
Physical Barrier Stratum CORNEUM and HAIR PROTECTION
Reception Function of the Skin - Sensory NERVES and RECEPTORS in the DERMIS PROTECTION: sensations of TOUCH, PRESSURE, and PAIN
Synthesis synthesizes Vitamin D helps absorb CALCIUM
Created by: kristel387