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Human Phys Skeletal

Human Physiology Skeletal System Test Review

Abduction Moving parts AWAY from the midline.
Adduction Moving a part TOWARD the midline.
Circumduction Moving a part in cone shape; distal end follows circular path.
Dorsiflexion Flexing foot upwards toward shin.
Eversion Turning foot so sole faces outward.
Inversion Turning foot so sole is facing inward.
Plantar Flexion Flexing foot toward sole; pointing toes.
Pronation Turning hand so palm is downward (posterior).
Rotation Moving part around a longitudinal axis; shaking head "no."
Supination Turning hand so that palm faces upward.
Gliding Flat bone surfaces move back and forth and side to side.
What joints have little or no movement? Cartilaginous and Fibrous.
Ligament Reinforces the fibrous capsule; help prevent dislocation of the joint.
Hyaline Cartilage The connective tissue that keeps bone ends from crushing when they are compressed.
Synovial Fluid The lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces.
Diaphysis Shaft/body of the bone.
Endosteum Lines medullary (marrow) cavity.
Calcification Calcium connects with collagen fibers to harden bone.
Lamellae Circular, ring-like matrix around a central canal. Concentric rings of calcified matrix.
What type of cartilage is involved in ossification? Hyaline
Osteogenic Cells Unspecialized stem cells; only cells that go under cell division.
Osteoblasts Bone-building cells. "Good cells." Lay down additional matrix and become osteocytes.
Osteoclasts Break down the matrix. Reabsorption.
If body Ca is too low... PTH is released and osteoclasts break down bone and release Ca into the blood.
If body Ca is too high... Ca is deposited into bone matrix as a salt after the bones become stronger and harder.
What shape is a short bone? Cubical
Flat Bones PROTECT organs. Skull, ribs, scapula, sternum.
Where is red bone marrow found? Skull, ribs, sternum, clavicle. Makes RBC, WBC, platelets.
Foramen Openings for blood vessels, ligaments, or nerves.
What is different between an adult and a baby cranium? The baby's is more larger and disproportional to the rest of the skull.
What is the difference between Fibrous and Cartilaginous joints? Fibrous are immovable. Cartilaginous is cartilage that connects bones.
Tendon Muscle to bone.
Ligament--connects? Bone to bone.
Axial Skeleton Bones that lie vertically.
Appendicular Skeleton Upper and lower limbs and girdles.
Fontanels The soft spots on a young child's skull. Allow growth for skull as they are flexible and reshape once stopped growing.
Yellow Bone Marrow Found in long bones, such as the arms and legs. Has fat (adipose) cells that are used in extreme hunger.
Created by: thomaki23