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A&P - Chap 2

energy no mass, does not take up space, can be measured only by its effects on matter; the capacity to do work
chemical energy energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances
adenosine triphosphate ATP
electrical energy the movement of charged particles
radiant (electromagnetic) energy energy that travels in waves on the electromagnetic spectrum
isotope have the same atomic number but vary in their mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons
radioisotopes isotopes that perform radioactive decay
solutions homogeneous mixtures of two or more components
solvent substance present in the greatest quantity
solute substance present in smaller amount
mole an amount of substance equal to its atomic (molecular) weight
avogadro's number 6.02 x 10^23
colloids heterogeneous mixtures that appear translucent or milky
sol-gel transformations to change reversibly from a fluid to a more solid state
octet rule except for shell 1, atoms interact where they must have 8 electrons in their valence shell
crystals in absence of water, cations and anions are held together by ionic bonds
electronegativity capability to attract electrons
electropositive electron attracting ability is low and they usually lose their valence shell to other atoms
dipole polar molecule
synthesis reaction atoms or molecules combine to form a larger molecule
anabolic constructive activities
catabolic destructive activities
decomposition reaction bonds are broken to form smaller particles
exchange/displacement reactions include both decomp and synthesis reactions
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions hybrid reactions that can be classified as both decomp and exchange reactions
oxidized the electron donor
reduced electron acceptor
exergonic energy releasing
endergonic energy absorbing
catalyst substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions
enzymes biological catalysts
organic compounds contain carbon
hydrolysis reactions breakdown by water
dehydration synthesis water is removed from every chemical bond
electrolytes substances that conduct current in solution
acid releases hydrogen ions (H+)
base take hydrogen ions (H+), releases (OH-)
carbohydrate includes sugars and starches
monosaccharide one sugar
disaccharide two sugar
polysaccharide multiple sugar
polymer many polysaccharides
triglycerides, triacylglycerols neutral fats
saturated fats have single carbon bonds, solid
unsaturated fats have double or triple bonds, liquid at room temperature
steroids have hydrocarbon rings instead of chains
fibrous proteins structural proteins
globular proteins functional proteins (ex: enzymes)
cofactor needed by enzyme to carry out a certain function
substrate substance in which enzyme must bind on
Created by: ngrable



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