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GAR AL09

QuestionAnswer
Radius is (lateral/medial) and (shorter/longer) lateral; slightly shorter
Ulna is (lateral/medial) and (shorter/longer) medial; slightly longer
Interosseous membrane Ligament that attaches the ulna and the radius
Flexor compartment is located? anterior
Extensor compartment is located? posterior
Which forearm nerves are anterior? medial nerve; ulnar nerve
Which forearm nerves are posterior? radial nerve
Superficial forearm veins are surrounded by? Cutaneous nerves
Course of the cephalic vein along the arm and forearm Runs laterally and continues down to the dorsal side of hand
Basilic vein Runs medially; combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein
Medial cubital vein connects the basilic and cephalic vein; located in the cubital fossa (inner elbow triangle); most common location for blood draw;
Brachial artery location directly under the median cubital vein
Median nerve location median to the brachial artery (which is directly under the median cubital vein)
When drawing blood from median cubital vein, stay _______ superficial because you may hit other structures of cubital fossa which are deep to the vein
Structures of the cubital fossa under the superficial veins (3) Brachial artery; median nerve; tendons of biceps brachii (lateral);
Head of radius is proximal
Radial styloid process sticks out laterally and distally
Which is more distal? (radial styloid process/ulnar styloid process) Radial styloid process is more distal than ulnar syloid process; they can become level when bones break in the forearm
Interosseous membrane function Transfers weight bearing forces from radius to ulna; aids in supination and pronation; provides site for muscle attachment
Orientation of radius and ulna during pronation radius and ulna are parallel
Orientation of radius and ulna during supination radius crosses over ulna
Interosseous membrane Ligament that attaches the ulna and the radius
Superficial muscles of the flexor compartment (4) - anterior pronator teres; flexor carpi radialis; flexor carpi ulnaris; palmaris longus
Origin of the superficial muscles of the flexor compartment medial side
Pronator teres function pronates the forearm
Pronator teres innervation median nerve
Flexor carpi radialis function flexes and abducts the hand at the wrist
Flexor carpi radialis innervation median nerve
Flexor carpi ulnaris function flexes and adducts the hand at the wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris innervation ulnar nerve
Palmaris longus innervation median nerve
Palmaris longus function Weak flexor (along with other flexor muscles); absent in 15% of population
Median nerve innervates which superficial flexor compartment muscles pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus
Carpi relating to the wrist; for bone names: flexes the wrist joint
Intermediate flexor compartment muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis (flexor digitorum sublimis)
Flexor digitorum superficialis function flexes wrist joint, Middle Phalanges, Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP) joints of median 4 digits
Flexor digitorum superficialis innervation median nerve
Flexor digitorum superficialis artery ulnar artery
Deep flexor compartment muscles (3) Flexor digitorum profundus; flexor pollicis longus; pronator quadratus
Flexor digitorum profundus innervation Ulnar half: ulnar nerve; Radial/lateral half: anterior interosseous branch of median nerve
Flexor digitorum profundus function flexes medial four digits at MP, PIP and DIP; assists with flexion of hand
Pronator quadratus function pronates the forearm
Pronator quadratus innervation median nerve
What happens if forearm if the median nerve is lost? lost pronation completely
Flexor pollicis longus function flexes thumb
Flexor pollicis longus innervation median nerve
Nerves of the anterior forearm compartment median; ulnar
median nerve runs along midline of the forearm
Describe ulnar nerve position and path Runs along the medial edge of the forearm, under flexor carpi ulnaris and above flexor digitorum profundus with the ulnar artery
median nerve roots C6-T1
ulnar nerve roots C8-T1
Brachial nerve splits into ulnar and radial arteries
How many muscles in the forearm does the median nerve innervate? 6.5 muscles (pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor digitorum superficialis, radial 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus, pronator quadratus, flexor pollicis longus)
How many muscles in the forearm does the ulnar nerve innervate? 1.5 muscles (Flexor carpi ulnaris; ulnar 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus)
Severed median nerve loss of pronation, sensory loss, loss of function of 6.5 muscles, hand of benediction
Hand of benediction Dynamic sign; Result of severed median nerve at upper arm or elbow; Patient attempts to make fist but 1st, 2nd, 3rd, digits are extended, 4th (ring) and 5th (pinky) flexed (innervated by ulnar nerve)
Injury at median recurrent nerve Ape hand: cannot move the thumb outside of the plane of the palm. Loss of thenar muscle function
Ulnar nerve injury at elbow Static sign; develops over extended period of time; Hyperextension of MP joint; Flexion of PIP joint; Unlike Hand of Benediction, this is a static sign
Describe the course of the radial artery Runs on lateral/radial side of anterior forearm; Goes to posterior side of wrist joint then over thumb into palm to become deep palmar arch; Runs through snuff box
Describe the course of the ulnar artery Runs along ulnar side of anterior forearm; Curves around in palm to become superficial palmar arch; Gives off several digital branches
Most blood comes from which artery (ulnar/radial) ulnar artery
3 functional groups of muscles in the extensor compartment 1. extend and abduct or adduct at wrist
Innervation of the extensor compartment radial nerve (C5-T1)
Common Interosseous Artery (location and root) Large branch off ulnar artery that comes off at end of cubital fossa
Common Interosseous Artery division Anterior interosseous; posterior interosseous
Anterior interosseous artery runs anterior to interosseous membrane
Posterior interosseous artery runs posterior side of membrane (pierces membrane first)
Posterior interosseous artery supplies deep muscles of forearm
Extensor compartment (anterior/posterior forearm) Posterior forearm
Radial nerve innervates Extensor muscles
radial nerve roots C5-T1
Radial nerve branches into superficial and deep radial nerves
Deep branch of the radial nerve innervates muscles
Superficial branch of the radial nerve innervates cutaneous (skin of the posterior forearm and part of the dorsum of hand)
Radial nerve injury Wrist drop: loss of extension, hand hangs down
General origin and course of extensor muscles Originate from lateral side of arm at elbow joint then run distally and medially
Extend and abduct/adduct wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus- extend and abduct wrist on radial side
Extend and abduct wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus- extend and abduct wrist on radial side
Extend and adduct wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris- extend and adduct wrist on medial side
Muscles that extend wrist begin with extensor carpi
Muscles that extend medial four digits (3) Extensor digitorum communis- extend medial four digits
Extensor digitorum communis extend medial four digits
Extensor indicis extend index finger
Extensor digiti minimi extend little finger
Extensor carpi radialis longus extend and abduct wrist on radial side
Extensor carpi radialis brevis extend and abduct wrist joint on radial side
Extensor carpi ulnaris extend and adduct wrist on medial side
Abductor pollicis longus abduct thumb
Extensor pollicis brevis extend thumb
Extensor pollicis longus extend thumb
Muscles that Extend or abduct thumb (3) Deep muscles involved in thumb movement;
Muscles that extend or abduct thumb location (run on...) Run on lateral side of wrist
Snuffbox formed by Tendons of the muscles that extend or abduct thumb
Muscles that supinate forearm Supinator- only strong supinator in forearm; Biceps brachii also supinates;
Stronger: pronators or supinators? Supinators
Movements of thumb (4) Extension; Flexion; Abduction; Adduction; Opposition
Thumb Extension increasing angle between thumb and hand in the plane of the hand
Thumb Flexion decreasing angle between thumb and hand in the plane of the hand
Thumb Abduction moving thumb away from the hand at a right angle to palmar surface
Thumb Adduction returning the thumb t the hand from a right angle with the palmar surface
Thumb Opposition touching the thumb to the little finger- unique to humans
Tennis elbow (Elbow tendonitis) Inflammation of the common tendon of origin (common extensor attachment) for all posterior forearm muscles. Patient has pain around lateral epicondyle with radiation down lateral forearm. AKA: lateral epicondylitis
Elbow tendonitis (Tennis elbow) Inflammation of the common tendon of origin (common extensor attachment) for all posterior forearm muscles. Patient has pain around lateral epicondyle with radiation down lateral forearm. AKA: lateral epicondylitis
Tendons/synovial sheaths location dorsum of hand
Snuff box 1. Extensor Pollicis Brevis & Abductor Pollicis Longus (anterior)
Extensor retinaculum ligament that holds all tendons in position as they are working
Synovial sheath covers tendons
Synovial sheath contains synovial fluid
Synovial fluid in synovial sheath to make movements of tendons smooth
Why are patterns of synovial sheaths important to understanding how infection will spread
Extensor expansion "the flattened tendons (aponeurosis) of extensor muscles that run into the back of the hand; form a ""hood"""
Aponeuroses layers of flat broad tendons; their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts the muscles act upon
Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm branches from? final branches of musculocutaneous nerve
What attaches to the tuberosity? ...
Capitulum ...
Trochlear notch ...
Coronoid process Bottom part of Trochlear notch on ulna
Bicipital aponeurosis a broad extension of the biceps tendon that attaches to the antebrachial fascia. It is located on the medial side of the biceps brachii tendon.
Head of radius articulates with what part of the humerus? capitulum
Radial tuberosity ...
Created by: paul411