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Questions I created from notes

QuestionAnswer
The study of structure Anatomy
Gross anatomy and macrosopic anatomy can be seen with? The eye
The study of function Physiology
What is regional anatomy? All the structures in one region
What is systemic anatomy? Body structure system by system
What is cystology the study of cells
What is histology study of tissues
What traces structural changes throught life? Developmental anatomy
What is embryology study of developmental changed of the body before birth
studies structural changes caused by disease pathological anatomy
studies internal structures as visualized by xray images radiographic anatomy
structure of biological molecules (chemical substances) molecular biology
concerns kidney function and urine procution renal physiology
explains the working of the nervous system neurophysiology
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels cardiovascualr physiology
focuses on the function of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level physiology
Principle of complementarity of structure & function -function always reflects structure -structure dictates (what it can do depends on its form)
molecules are made up of atoms chemical
cells are made of molecules cellular
consists of similar types of cell tissue
made up of different types of tissue organ
consists of different organs that work closely together organ system
made up of the organ systems organismal
needed for energy and cell building nutrients
necessary for metabolic reactions oxygen
procvides the necessary environment for chemical reactions water
necessary for chemical reacations to occur at life sustaining rates normal body temp
required for proper breathing and gas exchange atmospheric pressure
ability to to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an everchanging outside world homeostasis
the internal environment of the body is in dynamic state of equilibrium
produce a change in the body variables
what are the 3 interdependent components of control mechanisms receptor, control center, effector
monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli) receptor
determines the set point at which the variable is maintained control center
provides the means to respond to stimuli effector
The output enchanses or exaggerates the original stimulus (ex regulation of blood clotting or having a baby) Positive feedback
output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces intensity Negative feedback
Disturbance of homeostasis or the bodys normal equilibrium homeostatic imbalance
homeostatic imbalance often leads to what disease
anything that has mass or takes up space (the "stuff" of the universe matter
has definate shape and volume solid
has definate volume, changeable shape liquid
has changeable shape and voulme gas
unique susbastances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means elements
identical building blocks for each element atoms
one or two letter chemical shorthand for each element atomic symbol
What are the major elements of the human body O, C, H, & N
where is a proton located, what is its mass, and charge located in nucleus, mass 1 amu, charge +
where is a nutron located, what is its mass, and charge located in nucleus, mass 1 amu, charge 0
where is the electron located, what is its mass, and charge located in an electron cloud, mass 0 amu, charge is -
What does atomic number tell you number of protons
What does mass number tell you the sum of the protons and neutrons
what does the atomic weight tell you average of the mass numbers of all isotopes
Electron shells or energy level surround the nucleus of an atom
valence shell outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
octet rule atoms interact in a manner to have eight electrons in their valence shell
inert elemets have their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons chemically inert elements
reactive elements do not have 8 electrons in their valence shell chemically reactive elements
Ions are charged atoms resulting fromt he gain or loss of what an electron
Anions have what charge negative
cations have what charge positive
What do ionic compounds form crystals
covalent bonds are formed by sharing what two or more electrons
electron sharing forms what molecules
electrons shared equally between atoms produce what nonpolar molecules
what type of bonds are too weak to bind molecules together, responsibe for surface tension in water, and give molecules their 3D shape hydrogen bonds
Occurs when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken chemical reaction
chemical equations contain what number and type of reacting substances, and products produced
synthesis reactions always involve what? bond formation
molecules are broken down into smaller molecules decomposition reactions
bonds are both made and broken in what type of reaction exchange reactions
Reactants losing electrons are electron donors and are ? oxidized
reactants taking up electrons are electron accepters and become? reduced
reactions that release energy exergonic reactions
reactions whose products contain more potential energy than did its reactants endergonic reactions
all chemical reactions are_________ reversible
if neither a forward nor reverse reaction is dominate chemical_________________ is reached equilibrium
What factors infuence the rate of chemical reactions temperature, particle size, and concentration, catalysts, and enzymes
What are the properties of water high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polar solvent properties, reactivity, and cushioning
has a sour taste, can disolve metal, and burn a hole in a rug acid
has a bitter taste, and feels slippery base
what is the ph of an acid anything below 7
what is the ph of a base anything above 7
what is the ph of somehting that is neutral 7
what is a buffer system that resists change in ph
the carbonic acid bicarbonate system is a major buffer
organic compounds contain what carbon (examples of organic compunds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
inorganic compounds lack what they lack carbon (examples of inorganic compunds are water, salts, acids & bases)
what is the major fuction of carbohydrates they are cellular food (supply energy or fuel for the cells)
what is a neutral fat compsed of 3 fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule
what do phospholipds form cell membranes
What is the cell theory the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life
anything that has mass or takes up space (the "stuff" of the universe matter
has definate shape and volume solid
has definate volume, changeable shape liquid
has changeable shape and voulme gas
unique susbastances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means elements
identical building blocks for each element atoms
one or two letter chemical shorthand for each element atomic symbol
What are the major elements of the human body O, C, H, & N
where is a proton located, what is its mass, and charge located in nucleus, mass 1 amu, charge +
where is a nutron located, what is its mass, and charge located in nucleus, mass 1 amu, charge 0
where is the electron located, what is its mass, and charge located in an electron cloud, mass 0 amu, charge is -
What does atomic number tell you number of protons
What does mass number tell you the sum of the protons and neutrons
what does the atomic weight tell you average of the mass numbers of all isotopes
Electron shells or energy level surround the nucleus of an atom
valence shell outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
octet rule atoms interact in a manner to have eight electrons in their valence shell
inert elemets have their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons chemically inert elements
reactive elements do not have 8 electrons in their valence shell chemically reactive elements
Ions are charged atoms resulting fromt he gain or loss of what an electron
Anions have what charge negative
cations have what charge positive
What do ionic compounds form crystals
covalent bonds are formed by sharing what two or more electrons
electron sharing forms what molecules
electrons shared equally between atoms produce what nonpolar molecules
what type of bonds are too weak to bind molecules together, responsibe for surface tension in water, and give molecules their 3D shape hydrogen bonds
Occurs when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken chemical reaction
chemical equations contain what number and type of reacting substances, and products produced
synthesis reactions always involve what? bond formation
molecules are broken down into smaller molecules decomposition reactions
bonds are both made and broken in what type of reaction exchange reactions
Reactants losing electrons are electron donors and are ? oxidized
reactants taking up electrons are electron accepters and become? reduced
reactions that release energy exergonic reactions
reactions whose products contain more potential energy than did its reactants endergonic reactions
all chemical reactions are_________ reversible
if neither a forward nor reverse reaction is dominate chemical_________________ is reached equilibrium
What factors infuence the rate of chemical reactions temperature, particle size, and concentration, catalysts, and enzymes
What are the properties of water high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polar solvent properties, reactivity, and cushioning
has a sour taste, can disolve metal, and burn a hole in a rug acid
has a bitter taste, and feels slippery base
what is the ph of an acid anything below 7
what is the ph of a base anything above 7
what is the ph of somehting that is neutral 7
what is a buffer system that resists change in ph
the carbonic acid bicarbonate system is a major buffer
organic compounds contain what carbon (examples of organic compunds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
inorganic compounds lack what they lack carbon (examples of inorganic compunds are water, salts, acids & bases)
what is the major fuction of carbohydrates they are cellular food (supply energy or fuel for the cells)
what is a neutral fat compsed of 3 fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule
what do phospholipds form cell membranes
What is the cell theory the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life, orgasimal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells, continuity of life has a cellular basis
What seperates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids plasma membrane
what is the plasma membrane made of phospolipids
Phospholipds are both _______________&__________ hydrophobic and hydrolific
Phospholipids form bilayers which are ________________ selectivly permiable
What do proteins do? transport, send signals, cell cell recognition, join cells, and anchor cells
dumps things out of a cell exocytosis
brings things into a cell endocytosis
tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area where they are in higher concentration to lower concentration diffusion
simple diffusion nonpolar and lipid soluble substance diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer
molecules move through the membrane by passive trasport facilitated diffusion
intergral transmembrane proteins carrier proteins
osmosis diffusion of water across a membrane
osmosis occurs when the concentration of water is ______________ on opposite sides of a membrane different
passage of water and solutes through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure filtration
osmosis and filtration are _____________ transport passive
uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane and requires carrier proteins active transport
two transported substances are moved in the same direction symport system
transported substances "wave to each other" as they cross the membrane in opposite directions antiport system
protein uses ATP energy to change conformation Primary active transport
use of an exchange pump to indirectly drive the trasport of other solutes secondary active transport
exocytosis, endocytosis, transcytosis, vesicular trafficking, and phagocytosis are examples of vesicular transport
moving substances into, across, or out of a cell transcytosis
moving substances from one area (or organelle) in the cell to another vesicular trafficing
type of endocytosis in which the cell encuglfs some relatively large or solid material such as a clump of bacteria, cell debris, or inantimate particles phagocytosis
cellular material between the plasma membrane and nucleus cytoplasm
largly water (proteins, salts, sugars, and other solutes) cytosol
metabolic machinery of the cell organelles
threadlike or lozenge shaped membraneous orgnelles "power house" of the cell mitochondria
mitochondria proved most of the cells _____________ via aerobic cellular respiration ATP
ribosomes are composed of ? protein & RNA
free ribosomes make soluble proteins that function in _______________ cytosol
________________ make proteins for membranes bound ribosomes
system of organelles that function to produce, store and export biological molecules & degrade harmful substances endomembrane system
What system includes the nuclear envelope, smooth and rough er, lysosomes, vacuoles, transport vesicles, golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane endomembrane system
Interconnecteed tubes and membranes, continuous with the nuclear membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
What are the two types of ER smooth and rough
What does rough ER do makes all secreted proteins, membrane proteins, and phospholipids
What does smooth ER do catalyze reactions in various organs in the body
What is the role of the Golgi apparatus traffic director
Golgi apparatus functions in ________________ cellular proteins
sacs with digestive enzymes lysosomes
membraneous sacs containiing a variety of powerful enzymes, detoxify peroxisomes
what is the cytoskeleton the skeleton of the cell consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
certriols organize ________________ mitotic spindle
whiplike motile extension that move things across cell surfaces cilia
what is the control center "brain" of a cell nucleus
surrounds nucleus Outer memberane is continuous with rough ER and has ribosomes nuclear envelope
site of ribosome production nucleolus
what makes proteins ribosome
threadlike strands of DNA and histones chromatin
DNA serves as the master blueprint for _______________ protein synthesis
segments of DNA carying instructinos for a protein are genes
copying DNA replication
copying DNA to RNA transcription
RNA to protein translation
DNA and RNA are the same except in what way RNA uses U instead of T
takes message from nucleus to ribosome mRNA
binds amino acids and brings them to mRNA tRNA
Created by: vuaandp