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Samsam 101

Directional terms, planes, and bone structures

QuestionAnswer
Frontal/Coronal Separates chest and back
Sagittal Separates left and right
Midsagittal Separates left and right symmetrically
Parasagittal Separates left and right asymmetrically
Transverse Separates top and bottom
Oblique Separates along undefined axis
Proximal Closer to the torso
Midline Divides humans symmetrically
Medial Closer to the midline
Lateral Closer to the surface
Superior Higher
Inferior Lower
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Dorsal Back
Ventral Belly
Cranial Towards head end
Caudal Towards foot end
Ipsilateral Same side
Contralateral Opposite side
Superficial Near the surface
Deep Far from the surface
Flat bone examples Cranium, pelvis, sternum, ribs, scapula
Sesamoid bone examples Patella (kneecap)
Irregular bone examples Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
Foramen Opening
Sulcus Superficial groove
Fissure Deep groove
Fossa Hollow area or depression
Meatus Canal
Process Tissue projection or outgrowth
Condyle Round, bulbous end of a bone
Facet Smooth surface
Head Bigger bulb on the end of a long bone
Crest Ridge
Epicondyle Round bulbous structure on distal end of bone
Line I hope you knew this one
Spinous process Backward and down facing outgrowths on vertebrae
Trochanter Bone outgrowth on femur opposite to head
Tubercle Small wart or outgrowth on bone generally for muscle insertion
Tuberosity Projection or protuberance, especially for muscle attachment on a bone
Origin Relative location; for muscles, the point where support is derived
Insertion The end of a muscle used for manipulation
Created by: seanjay