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Endocrine

MEDSCI 142

QuestionAnswer
The nervous system *two types* *PNS= Peripheral nervous system *CNS=Central nervous system
PNS *Peripheral Nervous system -cranial & spinal nerves -ganglia
CNS *Central Nervous System -Brain -Spinal cord
Sensory -Afferent neurons -in
Motor -Efferent Neurons -out (1)Somatic (2)Autonomic
Somatic -motor -voluntary -skeletal muscle
Autonomic -motor -involuntary -para/sympathetic -cardiac muscle -smooth muscle -glands
Alarm responce (immediate action) INCREASED: HR,BP,Bsugar,water retention, sweating. DECREASED: digestion, salivation DILATION:pupils, bronchi. *vasoconstriction
Relaxation (maintenance) -INCREASED: digestion, salivation -DECREASED: HR -CONSTRICTION: pupils, bronchi -vaso dilation
Relaxation (maintenance) -INCREASED: digestion, salivation -DECREASED: HR -CONSTRICTION: pupils, bronchi -vaso dilation
Stress response -sympathetic activation -mobilise resources for action -glucose & O2 consumption -reduce tissue damage -ward off danger OR flee
2 STAGES of stress response (1)alarm (2)resistance
(1)alarm -immediate -sym activation -adrenal medulla sustains>epinephrine>norepinephrine
(2)resistance -slower, longer lasting -hypothal,pit.,andrenal cortex -cortisol production
ANS -autonomic nervous system -involuntary -limbic,hypothal.,s.cord -2 neuron pathways
ANS pathways spinalcord--(pre-ganglionic myelinated neuron)-->autonomic ganglion--(postganglionic non-myelinated ganglion)-->Effectors
Effectors ACh=for parasymp to sweat glands Norepinephrine=all other symp fibres
Raynaud's -excessive symp stim -emotional stress -exposure to cold -chronic vasoconstriction -ischemia(lack of blood in hands and feet)
Hormone types -circulating -local
Circulating hormones -to receptors -via blood -on distant target cells
Local hormones (2TYPES) -PARACRINE: receptors on nearby target cells -AUTOCRINE: same cell
Effectors ACh=for parasymp to sweat glands Norepinephrine=all other symp fibres
Raynaud's -excessive symp stim -emotional stress -exposure to cold -chronic vasoconstriction -ischemia(lack of blood in hands and feet)
Hormone types -circulating -local
Circulating hormones -to receptors -via blood -on distant target cells
Local hormones (2TYPES) -PARACRINE: receptors on nearby target cells -AUTOCRINE: same cell
Cholera: toxin -permanently activates Gprotein -high cAMP -pumps Cl- into intestines with water chronic diarrhoea
Lipid soluble Hormones -needs solution transporter -diffuse into cell -activates receptors on nucleus -alters gene expression -new proteins alter cell activity
Water soluble Hormones -no carrier -binds to receptors on cell surface -activate Gprotein>adenyl cyclase -ATP converted to cAMP -acivates kinases -P enzymes -catalyse reactions producing physiological responses
Hypothalamus-pituitary axis -hypo=8hormones releasing & inhibiting control pituitary -together regualte growth development, metabolism ,homeostasis
Enhancing alarms response -releasing norepinephrine & epinephrine into blood stream
Adrenal gland MEDULLA -STIMULATED:Ach from preganglionic nuerons -RELEASES: Norepinephrine, Epipinephrine -ACTION: enhance symp ANS alarm responce
Adrenal gland CORTEX stimulation 1 -STIMULATED: increase in K+ -releases corticoids (aldosterone) -ACTION: incr blood Na+ & water, decr. K+}incr blood vol & pressure
Adrenal gland CORTEX stimulated 2 -STIMULATED: Ach from pituitary
Adrenal gland CORTEX stimulation 1 -STIMULATED: increase in K+ -releases mineralo corticoids (aldosterone) -ACTION: incr blood Na+ & water, decr. K+}incr blood vol & pressure
Adrenal gland CORTEX stimulated 2 -STIMULATED: ACTL from pituitary -RELEASES:glucocosorticoids (cortisol) -ACTION: resistance to stress reaction, dampens inflammation &immun response
Actions of cortisol (seven) (1)Protein breakdown (2)Gucloneogenesis (3)Lipolysis (4)Stress resistance (4)Vasoconstriction (5)Anti-inflammatory (6)Immune depression
(1)protein Breakdown -in muscle fibres -AAs-->blood -used for synthesis of proteins & ATP production
(2)Gluconeogenesis -liver cells -AAs/lactic acid-->glucose -used for ATP production
(3)lipolysis -breakdown of triglycerides -&fatty acids from adipose into blood
(4)stress resistance -increased ATP & glucose combats stresses e.g. bleeding, trauma, infection, disease, temp extremes, fasting
(5)vasocontrition -leads to rise in BP
(6)Anti-inflammatory -limits WBC to tissue -retards tissue repair & wound healing
(7)Immune Depression -increased susceptibility to infection
Created by: meglet