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Cardiovascular Sys 1

Diseases of the cardiovascular system

QuestionAnswer
AP stands for? Angina pecteris
Angina pecteris is characterized by? thoracodynia (chest pain)
Angina pecteris is characterized by thoracodynia resulting from? myocardial ischemia
myocardial ischemia stands for? starvation of oxygen
The myocardial ischemia is commonly caused by? CAD (coronary artery disease)
CAD is AKA CHD which stands for? coronary heart disease
coronary heart disease causes? stenosis (narrowing)
The stenosis is caused by? atherosclerosis
atherosclerosis is? fatty plaque that forms the lumen of the coronary arteries.
The lumen is the? inside diameter of the artery.
The purpose of the coronary arteries is to? feed oxygenated blood to the myocardium (muscle layer of the heart).
When an embolus (floating clot) occludes (obstructs) a coronary artery, the resulting injury is called a? MI (myocardial infarction)
A MI(myocardial infarction) is commonly called a? "heart attack" or "coronary"
Heart disease is the? #1 killer of the US.
Initially, the starvation of oxygenated blood to the myocardium called? myocardial ischemia
If the starvation is not corrected, death can occur to the myocardium called? myocardial necrosis
Dx(diagnosis) of a MI (myocardial infarction) is by? 1. EKG or ECG (electrocardiogram) 2. CPK-MB (cardiac isoenzymes)
1 st risk factor of CAD (coronary artery disease) is? 1. Heredity
Second risk factor for CAD (coronary artery disease) is? 2. Smoking
Third risk factor for CAD (coronary artery disease) is? High fat diet (cholesterol, LDL (low density liproproteins and triglycerides.
Fourth risk factor for CAD (coronary artery disease) is? Sedentary life style (obesity) > 40 inch waist for men > 35 inch waist for women
Fifth risk factor for CAD (coronary artery disease) is? over age 35
Sixth risk factor for CAD is? poorly controlled stress
Seventh risk factor for CAD is? HTN (hypertension)
Eighth risk factor for CAD is? DM (diabetes mellitus)
Ninth risk factor for CAD is? Elevated CRP (c-reative protein)
1st Tx (treatment) for CAD is? Stop smoking
2nd Tx (treatment) for CAD is? Lower saturated fat in diet and increase HDL (omega - 3 fatty acids)
3rd Tx (treatment) for CAD is? Regular exercise
4th TX for for CAD is? antianginal drugs (coronary vasoconstriction)
5th TX for CAD is? antihyperlipidemic (excessive fat in the blood) drugs
Thrombolytics (tPA) are designed to? break up thrombi (clots) that have occluded (obstructed) one or more coronary arteries.
Anticoagulants designed to? prevent new thrombi from forming
PTCA which stands for? percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) "balloon angioplasty"
Coronary stents which are devices that? prevent closure after an angioplasty
CABG which stands for? coronary artery bypass grafts
CABG commonly uses grafts harvested from the? saphenous veins or mammary arteries and used to bypass the stenosed. (narrowed) or occluded (obstructed)
Types of CABG include? double, triple, quadruple, or quintuple bypasses
EECP which stands for? enhanced external counter pulsation
EECP uses? inflatable cuffs on the lower extremities inflating and deflating in rhythm with the heart to increase oxygenated blood flow to the coronary arteries and stimulate development of collateral blood vessels.
1st Common signs and symptoms of a MI or AP include? 1. Thoracodynia (chest pain) located midsternal,and/or substernal and/or retrosternal.
The pain is commonly described as a? crushing pressure (men)
The pain can radiate to the? left and/or right arm, shoulders, neck, and/or jaw (women)
2nd common signs and symptoms of an MI or AP include? dyspnea (difficulty breathing) AKA (SOB) shortness of breath
3rd common signs and symptoms of MI or AP includes? Pallor (paleness)
4th signs and symptoms of MI or AP include? N + V (nausea and vomiting)
5th common sign and symptom of MI and AP include? diaphoresis (profuse sweatiness)
6th common sign and symptoms of MI and AP include? Weakness
7th common sign and symptoms of MI and AP include? syncope (fainting)
There can be any combination of signs and symptoms or the victim my be? asymptomatic (no symptoms)
An asymptomatic MI is AKA? "silent MI"
A "silent MI" is the most dangerous because the victim has no reason to? seek help.
Most MIs occur on? Monday
MIs have been linked to? binge drinking
The best chance of surviving a MI depends on whether the infarct is resolved with? 90 minutes
CAD can also be reduced by? 1. drinking tea daily (flavanoids)
CAD can also be reduced by? 2. Getting 300 mcg of folate/day (tomatoes,citrus, leafy greens, beans, grains)
CHF (congestive heart failure) is caused by? "weak pump"
Causes of CHF include? 1. MI's (myocardial infractions)
Another cause of CHF? 2. Myocardial atrophy from a sedentary life style (obesity)
Another cause of CHF? 3. Valvular disease
Another cause of CHF? 4. Chronic HTN (hypertension)
Right sided CHF can cause? A. pedal (feet and ankles) edema B. neck and vein distention C. Hepatomegly (enlargement of the liver)
Left sided CHF can cause? dyspnea (difficulty breathing) or DOE (dyspnea on exertion) from pulmonary edema (fluid)
Treatment for CHF includes? 1. Decrease Na (sodium) intake 2. Lanoxin (digoxin) 3. Diuretics (Lasix)
Mitral stenosis occurs when the? bicuspid valve is narrow and the cusps become rigid and fuse together.
The congested blood flow can cause? pulmonary edema, cyanosis (blue)and thrombus (clot) formation.
Tx for mitral stenosis includes? valvuloplasty (surgical repair of the valve)
RHD stands for? rheumatic heart disease
RF stands for? rheumatic fever
RHD is a sequela (after math) of RF and cause a? mitral stenosis
RF is an? autoimmune disease that occurs 1-6 weeks following a Group A streptococcal infection.
Signs and symptoms of RF include? 1. pyrexia (fever) arthritis, and sometimes a rash.
RF and RHD can be prevented by prompt treatment of a streptococcal infection with? antibiotics
Mitral insufficiency occurs when the? bicuspid valve is unable to close completely.
Mitral insufficiency is AKA? mitral regurgitation.
Mitral insufficiency can be caused by? MVP (mitral valve prolapse)
Mitral insufficiency can range in severity from? asymptomatic to pulmonary edema
Tx for Mitral insufficiency includes? valvuloplasty (surgical repair of the valve)
AS (aortic stenosis)? is a narrowing of the aortic semilunar valve
AS can lead to inadequate blood flow to the brain causing? syncopal episodes (fainting)
Tx for AS includes? valvuloplasty (surgical repair of the valve)
Valvular defects are usually detected through? cardiac auscultation.
Blood regurgitating past an incompetent valve can create that sound that can be auscultated called a? bruit or murmur
Dx (diagnosis)of valvular defects is confirmed with? echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, or phonocardiography)
IE (infectious endocarditis) is a bacterial infection causing? inflammation of the endocardium (inner lining of the heart)
Risk factors for IE include? per-existing heart disease and IV (intravenous) drug use.
Complications of IE include? emboli production and valve damage.
Tx of IE includes? antibiotic therapy
Prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics are commonly prescribed for high risk patients before? surgery or dental procedures
An aneurysm is an? asymptomatic weak area in an arterial septum (wall)
Aneurysms commonly occur in the? thoracic or abdominal aorta
AAA stands for? abdominal aortic aneurysm
The primary cause of an aneurysm is? arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque
An aneurysm has the possibility of? disecting (rupturing) and causing life threatening internal hemorrhage.
Tx for an aneurysm includes? aneurysmectomy and replacement with an arterial graft.
PAD stands for? peripheral arterial disease
PAD is commonly caused by? atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque.
The arteries commonly affected by PAD include the? femorals and popliteals.
Signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PAD) include? a. Intermittent claudication (leg pain when walking
another sign and symptom of PAD is? b. Thinning of skin on legs.
another sign and symptom of PAD is? c. Tactile (touch) coolness.
another sign and symptom of PAD is? d. Absent or thready weak pulses.
Tx for PAD includes? preventing injury, anticoagulants, exercise, and surgery
Thrombophlebitis is an? inflammation of a vein (usually in the lower leg) with the formation of a thrombus (clot).
The thrombus can occlude (obstruct) a vein and cause? edema(swelling)
A complication of thrombophlebitis is? embolism(floating clot)
Tx for thrombophlebitis includes? anticoagulants, antibiotics, and rest
DVT stands for? Deep vein thrombus
Prevention of DVT include? a. proper hydration
prevention of DVT includes? b. ambulation
Varicose veins (VV) are? superficial swollen, twisted, knotty veins (varicosities)of the legs.
Varicose veins are commonly caused by? a. standing or sitting for long periods of time.
Varicose veins are commonly caused by? b. crossing legs.
varicose veins are commonly caused by? c. Pregnancy
VV are commonly caused by? d. heredity.
VV are commonly caused by? e. obesity.
Tx for VV (varicose veins) includes? a. Compression therapy b. ligation and stripping. c. sclerotherapy d. radiofrequency ablation
Hemorrhoids are? varicose veins of the anus and rectum.
Hemorrhoids can cause? pain, pruritus, and bleeding.
Causes of hemorrhoids include? chronic constipation and pregnancy.
Tx for hemorrhoids includes? a. anti-inflammatory creams, wipes, and suppositories. b. hemorrhoidectomy.
Esophageal varices are? varicose veins of the esophagus usually caused by cirrhosis of the liver.
Esophageal varices can cause? fatal hemorrhages to occur.
Tx for esophageal varices involves injection of a sclerosing solution into the varices to harden the veins called? endoscopic sclerotherapy.
Hypertension (HTN) refers to? chronic high blood pressure.
(HTN) hypertension is usually? asymptomatic ("the silent killer").
Damage caused by hypertension includes? a. CHF (congestive heart failure) b. MI (myocardial infarction) c. Renal (kidney) damage. d. CVA (cerebral vascular accident AKA "stroke"
HTN (hypertension) of unknown cause is called? essential hypertension or idiopathic hypertension or primary hypertension.
Hypertension can usually be controlled with? a. proper diet low in LDL's (low density lipoproteins. HDL's (high density proteins) and low in Na (sodium)
DASH stands for? dietary approaches to stop hypertension.
Hypertension can usually be controlled with? b. regular exercise. c. stress management d. elimination of caffeine (coffee, tea, soda, nicotine and alcohol e. hypertensive medications.
Shock is? any condition that reduces the heart's ability to pump (circulate)blood.
Types of shock include? a. Hypovolemic shock
Hypovolemic shock is caused by fluid volume loss which can be caused by? hemorrhage or dehydration
Neurogenic shock is caused by? generalized vasodilation which can be caused by drugs, anesthesia, and brain or spinal cord injury.
Anaphylactic shock is caused by an? exaggerated allergic response
Cardiogenic shock is caused by? extensive damage to the myocardium
Septic shock is caused by? systemic infections
The four blood types are? A, B, AB and O
Each blood type has a + or - called a? Rh factor
The negative Rh blood type can be given to a? positive Rh blood type
A positive Rh CANNOT be given to a? negative Rh blood type.
ER (Erythroblastosis) Fetalis only occurs when the mother's Rh factor is? negative and the father's Rh factor is positive.
If a fetus receives the father's positive Rh factor trait, the mother's immune system will be? sensitized to the fetal blood during delivery.
The mother will start creating? antibodies against the fetus Rh positive blood.
If the mother's next fetus has the father's Rh positive trait, her immune system will? attack and hemolyze(destroy) erythrocytes (red blood cells) causing hyperglycemia, and fetal hemolytic anemia.
The neonate will exhibit extreme? kerniterus.(yellow discoloration, to skin and sclerae).
This condition can be avoided if? the Rh factors of the parents are known before pregnancy occurs.
The medication administered to stop the maternal immune response to the positive Rh factor is called? Rhogram.
EF stands for? erthroblastosis fetalis
HDN stands for? hemolytic disease or the newborn or Rh incompatibility disease.
Anemia is? erthrocytopenia (deficiency of erythrocytes)and/or deficient hemoglobin).
Dx (diagnosis)of anemia is confirmed with a? CBC (complete blood count) and H+H (hemoglobin and hematocrit).
Hemorrhagic anemia occurs when? there is a substantial blood loss.
Hemolyic anemia occurs when? excessive destruction of erythrocytes (RBC's)
PA (Pernicious Anemia) occurs when? there is a deficiency of vitamin B-12. (<6 ug/day).
Hypochromic anemia occurs when? there is a deficiency of iron (Fe) (<18 mg/day) a.k.a. IDA (iron deficiency anemia).
IDA (is the iron deficiency anemia that is? the most common form of anemia.
Hypochromic anemia (IDA) is common is? adolescent girls boys and pregnant women.
Symptoms specific to hypochromic anemia(IDA) include? craving for ice,swelling of the tongue and dry lips.
Folic acid deficiency anemia (<400 mcg/day) can occur due to the? insufficient consumption of vegetables
Aplastic anemia occurs when? there is a dysfunction of the red bone marrow (myeloid tissue).
Signs and symptoms of all anemia's include? 1.Pallor (paleness)
another sign or symptom of all anemia's include? 2. Fatigue (tired)
another sign or symptom of all anemia's include? 3.Vertigo (dizziness)
Another sign and symptom of all anemia's include? 4. Muscle weakness
Another sign and symptom of all anemia's include? 5.Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
another sign and symptom of all anemia's include? 6.Tachycardia (rapid pulse)
another sign and symptom of all anemia's include? 7.Cephalalgia (headache)
Primary polycythemia is characterized by? erythrocytosis (excessive erythrocytes due to hyperactive myeloid tissue).(red bone marrow).
Primary polycythemia causes the blood to become viscous? thick
Tx (treatment)for primary polycythemia is? periodic therapeutic phlebotomy (bleeding).
Causes of secondary polycythemia include? 1. Living in high altitudes stimulates erythrocyte production to compensate for lower oxygen (02) concentration.
Causes of secondary polycythemia include? 2.Being very athletic stimulates erythrocyte production to compensate for hypoxia (deficient oxygen) during strenuous exercise).
ITP is an autoimmune disease causing? thrombocytopenia.
ITP can cause? purpura and anemia.
Tx (treatment)for ITP includes? periodic platelet (thrombocyte) transfusions.
Leukemia is characterized by? extreme leukocytosis (excessive WBC's) of immature leukocytes (white blood cells).
Numbers of WBCs seen in leukocytes (white blood cells). can exceed? 200,000 mm3.
Dx (diagnosis) of leukemia is confirmed with? WBC differential and bone marrow Bx (biopsy).
The signs and symptoms of leukemia include? 1. pyrexia (fever)
another sign and symptom of leukemia is? 2.Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes)
another sign and symptom of leukemia is? 3. arthralgias (join pain)
another sign and symptom of leukemia is? 4. Anemia and prolonged bleeding).
another sign and symptom of leukemia is? WT (weight) loss.
another sign and symptom of leukemia is? SOB (short of breath).
The first main type of leukemia is? 1. AML which stands for -acute myleogenous leukemia (5 year survival rate -40%)
The second main type of leukemia is? ALL which stands for - acute lymphocytic leukemia (5 year survival rate -85% in children, 50% in adults.
The third main type of leukemia is? chronic myelogenous leukemia (5 year survival rate -90%.
The fourth main type of leukemia is? CLL stands for -chronic lymphocytic leukemia (5 year survival rate - 75%)
Tx (treatment) for leukemia includes? chemotherapy (antineoplastics), radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation.
IM is caused by the? EBV - (Epstein-Barr virus).
IM is highly contagious and is commonly called the "kissing disease" due to the ease of? transmission from close personal contact.
IM (infectious mononucleosis) is also called the "college disease" because of the compromised condition of the many college students due to? 1. poor nutrition. 2. inadequate sleep 3. poorly controlled stress 4. excessive use of ETOH (alcohol) and tobacco.
a sign and symptom of (infectious mononucleosis) is? 1. pyrexia (fever)
a sign and symptom of (infectious mononucleosis) is? 2. extreme fatigue.
a sign and symptom of (infectious mononucleosis) is? 3. persistent pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat).
a sign and symptom of (infectious mononucleosis) is? 4. lymphadenopathy (swollen nodes)
a sign and symptom of (infectious mononucleosis) is? 5. splenomegaly (enlarged spleen).
Recovery can take weeks to months but a lasting immunity to the EBV (Epstein -Barr virus is ? usually attained.
A monospot is a? blood test to detect the presence of the EBV.
HD (Hodgkin's Disease) is a? malignancy of the lymphatic system.
Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's Disease include? 1. Painless cervical (neck), axillary (armpit), or lymph nodes).
Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's Disease include? 2. pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's Disease include? 3. Fatigue
Signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's Disease include? 4. WT (weight) loss.
Hodgkin's Disease is more common in? 1. Caucasian men
Hodgkin's Disease is more common in? 2. Smokers
Hodgkin's Disease is more common in? 3. exposure to the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) or EBV (Epstein-Barr virus).
Hodgkin's Disease is more common in? 4. Ages 15-35 and over 50.
Tx (treatment) for HD (Hodgkins Disease) includes? chemotherapy (antineoplastics) and radiation therapy.
The remission rate for Hodgins Disease is? 95%
The signs and symptoms for NHL (Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma)are? the same as HD (Hodgkin's Disease)
NHL (Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma) has a low remission due to? early metastasis (spread) before signs and symptoms occur.
Created by: Penny S