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Chapters 1-3

Check your understanding questinos

QuestionAnswer
In what way does physiology depend on anatomy? The operation or function of a structure is dictated (promoted or prevented) by its anatomy.
Would you be studying anatomy of physiology if you investigated how muscles shorten? If you explored the location of the lungs in the body? Muscle shortening is a topic of physiology. The body location of the lungs is an anatomy topic.
What level of structural organization is typical of cytologist’s field of study? Cytologists study the cellular level of organization
What is the correct structural order for the following terms: tissue, organism, organ, cell? The order in the structural hierarchy is cell, tissue, organ, and organisms.
Which organ system includes bones and cartilages? Which includes the nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea? Bones and cartilages are part of the skeletal system. The nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea are organs of the respiratory system.
What name is given to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells? Metabolism is the term that encompasses all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells.
Why is it necessary to be in a pressurized cabin when flying at 30,000 feet? In flight the cabin must be pressurized because the atmosphere is thinner at high altitudes and the amount of oxygen entering the blood under such conditions may be insufficient to maintain life.
What process allows us to adjust to either extreme heat or extreme cold? Negative feedback mechanisms allow us to adjust to conditions outside the normal temperature range by causing heat to be lost from the body (in hot conditions) and retained or generated by the body (in cold conditions).
When we begin to get dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids. Is this thirst part of a negative or positive feedback control system? Defend your choice. Thirst is part of negative feedback control system because it prods us to drink, which ends the thirst stimulus and returns body fluid volume back to normal range.
What is the anatomical position? Why is it important that you learn this position? The position in which a person is standing erect with feet slightly separated and palms facing anteriorly. Knowing the anatomical position is important because direction terms refer to the body as if it is in this position.
The axillary and acromial regions are both in the general area of the shoulder. Where specifically is each located? Axillary region is the armpit. Acromial area is the tip of the shoulder.
What type of cut would separate the brain into the anterior and posterior parts? A frontal (coronal) section would separate the brain into anterior and posterior parts.
Joe went to the emergency room where he complained of severe pain in his lower right quadrant of his abdomen what might be his problem? He may have appendicitis if the pain is in the lower right quadrant.
Of the uterus, small intestine, spinal cord, and heart, which is/are the dorsal body cavity? Of these organs only the spine is in the dorsal body cavity.
When you rub your cold hands together, the friction between them results in heat that warms your hands. Why doesn’t warming friction result during movement of the heart, lungs, and digestive organs? As mobile organs (heart, lungs, digestive organs) work friction is greatly reduced by the presence of serous fluid. Serous fluid allows the surrounding serous membranes to glide easily over one another.
What form of energy is found in food we eat? Foods contain chemical energy
What form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another? Electrical energy is the energy used by nerve cells to transmit messages in the body.
What type of energy is available when we are still? When we are exercising? Potential Energy (PE) is available when we are still. PE is converted to kinetic (working) energy when we exercise
What two elements besides H and N make up the bulk of living matter? Besides H, & N, C & O help make up the bulk of living matter
An element has a mass of 207 and has 125 neutrons in its nucleus. How many protons and electrons does it have and where are they located? The element has 82 protons in its nucleus and 82 electrons in its orbitals (electron cloud)
How do the terms atomic mass and atomic weight differ? Atomic mass indicates the sum of the protons and neutrons in a given atoms nucleus. Atomic weight indicates the average mass of all the isotopes of a given element
What is the meaning of the term molecule? A molecule is 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Why is sodium chloride (NaCl) considered a compound, but oxygen gas is not? A compound is formed when two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bond together, is in NaCl. Oxygen gas is 2 oxygen atoms (the same kind of atom) bonded together
Blood contains a liquid component and living cells. Would it be classified as a compound or a mixture? Why? Blood is a mixture because its components are not changed by their combination and they can be separated by physical means.
What kind of bonds form between water molecules? Hydrogen bonds (linking H of one water molecule to O of another) form between water molecules.
Oxygen (8O) and Argon (18A) are both gases. Oxygen combines readily with other elements, but argon does not. What accounts for this difference? Argons valence shell is full: )2e)8e)8e. Hence it is nonreactive.
Assume imaginary compound XY has a polar covalent bond. How does it charge distribution differ from that of XX molecules? Electrons would spend more time in the vicinity of the more electronegative atom in XY, whereas electrons in XX would orbit both X atoms to an equal extent.
Which reaction type-synthesis, decomposition, or exchange-occurs when fats are digested in your small intestine? Fats are digested in the small intestine by decomposition reactions.
Why are many reactions that occur in living systems irreversible for all intents and purposes? Biochemical reactions in the body tend to be irreversible because (a) one or more of the products is removed from the reaction site or (b) the product is needed more than the reactants, so the cell would not provide energy to reverse the reaction.
What specific name is given to decomposition reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy? Decomposition reactions in which foods are broken down for energy are oxidation- reduction (OR)
Water makes up 60-80% of living matter. What property makes it an excellent solvent? Water is an excellent solvent because of its polarity. As a dipole, it can orient itself to the end of other molecules, causing them to dissociate or go into a solution.
Salts are electrolytes. What does that mean? Electrolytes are substance like salts that will conduct an electrical current in aqueous solution
Which ion is responsible for increased acidity? H+ is responsible for acidity.
To minimize the sharp pH shift that occurs when a strong acid is added to a solution is it better to add a weak base or a strong base? Why? It is better to add a weak base, which will act to buffer the strong acid.
What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? Which monomer is blood sugar? Monomers of carbohydrates are called monosaccharide or simple sugars. Glucose is blood sugar.
What is the animal form of stored carbohydrate called? The animal form of stored carbohydrate is glycogen
What is the result of hydrolysis reactions and how are these reactions accomplished in the body? Hydrolysis reactions break down polymers or macromolecules to their monomers by adding water to each bond joining monomers
What does the name “amino acid” tell you about the structure of this molecule? An “amino acid” has an amine group (NH2) and COOH group that has acidic properties.
What is the primary structure of proteins? The primary structure of proteins the string like chain of amino acids
What are the two types of secondary structures in proteins? The secondary structures of proteins are the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet
What is the main event that molecular chaperones prevent? Molecular chaperones prevent inaccurate or inappropriate folding in the 3-D structure of a protein.
How do enzymes reduce the amount of activation energy needed to make a chemical reaction go? Enzymes hold the substrate(s) in a desirable position to interact
How do DNA and RNA differ in the bases and sugars they contain? DNA contains deoxyribose sugar and the bases A,T,G,C. RNA contains ribose sugar and the bases A,U,G,C
What are two important roles of DNA? DNA dictates protein structure by its base sequence and reproduces itself before a cell divides to ensure that the genetic information in the daughter cells is identical.
Glucose is an energy rich molecule. So why do body cells need ATP? ATP stores energy in smaller packets that are more readily released and transferred (during ATP hydrolysis) than the energy store in glucose. Hence the use of ATP as an energy source keeps energy waste to a minimum.
What change occurs in ATP when it releases energy? When ATP releases energy, it loses a phosphate group and becomes ADP (also energy rich)
Name the three basic parts of a cell and describe the function of each. The three basic parts of cell are the plasma membrane (the outer boundary of the cell), the nucleus (control center of the cell), and cytoplasm (the fluid material between the nucleus and plasma membrane)
How would you explain the meaning of a “generalized cell” to a classmate? It is the cell concept that includes structures and functions common to all cells.
What basic structure do all cellular membranes share? All cellular membranes consist of a double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded
Why do phospholipids, which form in the greater part of cell membranes, organize into a bilayer-tail-to-tail-in a watery environment? Hydrophobic regions (tails of phospholipid molecules) orient toward each other while the hydrophilic regions (phospholipid heads) orient to the aqueous fluid inside and outside the cell.
What is the importance of the glycocalyx in cell interactions? The sugar residues of the glycocalyx provide recognizable biological markers for cells to recognize each other.
What two types of membrane junctions would you expect to find between muscle cells of the heart? The heart has desmosomes (anchoring junctions) that secure cardiac cells together as the heart works and gap junctions (communicating junctions) that allow ions to flow from cardiac cell to cardiac cell
What is the energy source for all types of diffusion? Diffusion is driven by kinetic energy of the molecules
What determines the direction of any diffusion process? The relative concentration of the substance in different areas determines the direction of diffusion. Diffusion occurs from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
What are the two types of facilitated diffusion and how do they differ? In channel-mediated diffusion, the diffusing substance moves through a membrane channel. In carrier-mediated diffusion the diffusing substance attaches to a membrane (protein) carrier which moves it across the membrane.
What happens when the Na+-K+ pump is phosphorylated? When K+ binds to the pump protein? Phosphorylation of the Na+-K+ pump causes the pump protein to change shape so that it “pumps” Na+ across the membrane. K+ binding to the pump protein triggers the release of phosphate and the pump protein returns to its original shape.
As a cell grows, its plasma membrane expands. Does this membrane expansion involve endocytosis or exocytosis? The plasma membrane expands as a result of exocytosis
Phagocytic cells gather in the lungs, particularly in the lungs of smokers. What is the connection? Phagocytic cells engulf debris and smokers’ lungs would be laden with carbon particles and other debris from smoke inhalation
What vesicular transport process allows a cell to take in cholesterol from the extracellular fluid? Cholesterol is taken in by receptor mediated endocytosis.
What event or process establishes the resting membrane potential? Diffusion of ions, mainly the diffusion of K+ from the cell through the leakage channels establishes the resting membrane potential
Is the inside of the plasma membrane negative or positive relative to its outside in a polarized membrane? In a polarized membrane the inside is negative relative to its outside.
What term is used to indicate signaling chemicals that bind to membrane receptors? Which type of membrane receptor is most important in directing intracellular events by promotin formation of second messengers? Signaling chemicals that bind to membrane receptors are called ligands. G protein-linked receptors direct intracellular events by promoting formation of second messengers.
What organelle is the major site of ATP synthesis? Mitochondria is the major sites of ATP synthesis
How are microtubules and microfilaments related to functionally? Both microfiliamets and microtubules are involved in organelle movements within the cell and/or movements of the cell as a whole.
Of microfilaments, microtubules, or intermediate filaments, which is most important in maintaining cell shape? Intermediate filaments are the most important cytoskeletal elements in maintaining cell shape.
The major function of cillia is to move substances across the free cell surface. What is the major role of microvilli? The major function of microvilli is to increase the cells surface area for absorption or filtration of substances.
If a cell ejects or loses its nucleus what is its fate and why? If a cell loses its nucleus, it is doomed to die because it will be unable to make proteins, which include the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions
What is the role of the nucleoli? Nuclelia are the site of synthesis of ribosomal subunits
What is the importance of the histone proteins present in the nucleus? Histone proteins provide the means to pack DNA in a compact, orderly way and play a role in gene regulation
If one of the DNA strands being replicated “reads” CGAATG, what will be the base sequence of the corresponding DNA strand? The base sequence of the corresponding strand will be GCTTAC
During what phase of the cell cycle is DNA synthesized? DNA is synthesized during the S phase
What are the three events occurring in prophase that are undone in telophase? Nuclear envelope breaks up, spindle forms, nucleoli disappear, and the chromosomes coil and condense
Codons and anticodons are both three base sequences. How do they differ? Codons are three base sequences in mRNA each of which specifies an amino acid. Anticodons are three base sequences in tRNA that are complementary to the codons specifying the amino acid they transport to the ribosome during protein synthesis
How do the A, P, and E ribosomal sites differ functionally during protein synthesis? A site= entry site for the tRNA at the ribosome. P site= site where the peptide bonds form between delivered amino acids. E site = the tRNA exit site from the ribosome
What is the role of DNA transcription? DNA provides the coded instructions (is the template) for protein synthesis via the mRNA synthesized on it.
What is the importance of ubiquitiin in the life of a cell? Ubiqitin attaches to misfolded, damaged, or unneeded proteins, tagging them for destruction by proteasomes
What are two body fluids that inhabit the extracellular space and what role does each play in the body? Blood plasma is extracellular fluid that transports nutrients, gases, hormones, and other substances throughout the body. Interstitial fluid is an important transport and dissolving medium
What is apoptosis and what is its importance in the body? Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death which rids the body of cells that are stressed, damaged, old, or no longer needed
What is the wear and tear theory of aging? The wear and tear theory of aging attributes aging to little chemical insults of free radicals which have a cumulative detrimental effects.
Created by: vuaandp