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Western civ

The growth of the nation state

QuestionAnswer
King of France in 987, who controlled area around Paris but whose successors extended this territory later on, at the expense of feudal lords' power Hugh Capet
a theory in which the French kings had been selected by God to rule. divine right of kings
the year the Capetian family of French monarchs became extinct, making way for the Valois family. 1328
various local assemblies whose rights were recognized by the French monarchs, and whom these monarchs consulted with. Estates
the nationally representative assembly that only the French kings could summon. Estates general
Took place from 1338 through 1453. During this period of time the English were driven from France. Hundred Years’ War
King of France from 1483 to 1493, and invaded Italy in 1494. Charles VIII
concluded in 1516 by Francis I, as result of years of tough bargaining with the papacy. It permitted the French kings to nominate men of his choice to all the highest offices in the French church. Concordat of Bologna
A term for the catholic church in France and signifying the immense power and authority of it. Gallican church
King of France from 1515 to 1547. Concluded the concordat of bologna in 1516. Francis I
Year in which Francis I, in conjunction with the court of Paris (the parlement), declared Protestant beliefs and practices illegal and punishable. 1534
A protestant reformer who fled Paris and eventually to Geneva, when Francis I declared Protestantism illegal in 1534. Calvin
Published in 1597 by extreme Huguenot theorist. The first theoretical statement combined with a call to action to be found in early modern times that justified rebellion against, and even the execution of an unjust king. Vicdicai Contra Tyrannos
Successor of Francis I, abruptly ended the royal supremacy of Francis I. Was wed to a member of a powerful Italian banking family, Catherine de Medici. Henry II of France
One of the most despised figures of her day. This queen is famous for the saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre(1572), in which she ordered the execution of thousands of protestants by royal troops in Paris, and within a week throughout the country Catherine de Medici
The event in 1572 in which Catherine de Medici ordered the execution of thousands of Protestants in Paris by royal troops. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Death of the last Valois king. 1589
Duke of bourbon and a protestant, but converted to Catholicism when he was in line to succeed the throne. King of France from 1589 to 1610. He granted religious toleration to his protestant subjects in 1598 through the Edict of Nantes. Henry IV
Issued by Henry IV to allow religious toleration to his protestant subjects in 1598 Edict of Nantes
Although king of France from 1610 to 1643, he allowed Richelieu, his prime minister, to basically run France. Louis XIII
King of France from 1643 to 1715, he did not actually take charge of France until 1661.His reign is considered the most one of the clearest displays of absolutism. Louis XIV
Chief minister to Louis XIII from 1624 to 1642. He is considered the great architect of absolutism.He invented the phrase "raison de'tat" Cardinal Richelieu
Coined by Cardinal Richelieu. Is literally defined as “reason of state”. Richelieu interpreted it to mean the that state’s necessities and the king's absolute authority are synonymous. Raison d’etat
Lasted from 1618 to 1648. The Austrian Hapsburgs joined forces with their Spanish cousins and it seemed that no one could stop them. However,French participation in the war on the protestant side tipped the balance against the Hapsburgs. Thirty Years’ War
Cardinal Richelieu’s corrupt successor who, as he continued Richelieu’s policies, provoked the Fronde. He took charge of France during the minority of Louis XIV’s reign. Cardinal Mazarin
A rebellious reaction produced by Richelieu’s harsh policies that lasted from 1648 to 1653. Fronde
A brilliant administrator who improved methods of tax collecting, promoted new industries, and encouraged international trade in France during Louis XIV's reign. Jean Baptiste Colbert
The kings own men who collected royal taxes so the monarch would not have to rely on the local aristocracy. Intendants
The year Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes. 1685
Took place in 1789. It was provoked by a failure to reform the bankrupt system of government left by Louis XIV. French revolution
Invaded and conquered England, acquiring at a stroke the entire kingdom, in 1066. William duke of Normandy
Consultations beetween the kings of England with their powerful subjects. Parliaments
A Civil war in England between rival nobles lasting from 1453 to 1485. Wars of the Roses
The year the Tudor dynasty began. 1485
The king who began the Tudor dynasty, ruling from 1485 to 1509. Restored order and nobility by bringing unruly nobility into check and by bringing commoners (whose service could be channeled into the state) into all the highest offices of government. Henry VII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and son to Henry VII. During the protestant reformation he made himself head of the English church. Henry VIII
Queen of England from 1533 to 1558, and attempted to return England to Catholicism. Mary
Became Queen of England in 1558. Her reign was considered a Golden age, the calm before the storm, it was when a new commercial class was formed that, in the late seventeenth century, would demand greater say in government operations. Elizabeth I
Year in which England defeats Spanish armada. 1588
First of the Stuart kings reigning from 1603 to 1625. Believed in absolutism as did his continental counterparts (the French). James I
King of England from 1625 to 1649. He sought the royal absolutism that Louis XIV achieved. He was executed by order of parliament in 1649. Charles I
Broke out in 1640 because Charles I needed new taxes to defend against an invasion, but parliament refused unless he granted them basic rights. Charles refused, and the revolution broke out, fought by the new model army, led by Oliver Cromwell. English Revolution
The person Led the New model army in the English revolution. Oliver Cromwell
The date in which Charles I was executed by order of parliament. January 1649
The first theoretician of social democracy in modern times. One of the radicals of the English revolution. Gerrand Winstanley
Known as the “leveler.” One of the radicals of the English revolution. John Lilburne
The exiled son of the executed king of England (Charles I), invited back to the throne by parliament, who ruled from 1660 to 1685. Having learned his father's lesson, he never tried to institute royal absolutism. Charles II
Charles II ’s brother, was foolishly fearless, a catholic, and an admirer of royal absolutism. He tried to bend parliament and local government to his will, but his Catholicism led to his downfall, as the Anglican Church would not back him. James II
He was Stadholder of the Netherlands. In 1688 Parliament invited him and James II’s protestant daughter Mary II to invade England rescue it’s Government from James II. He was declared king of England at the end of the Glorious revolution. William of Orange
Lasting from 1688 to 1689. James II was driven from England and William III and Mary II were received as King and Queen. English Parliament also gained major legal powers delineated in the bill of rights of 1689. Glorious Revolution
Resolved the tensions of the seventeenth century and laid the foundations of English government until well into the nineteenth century. Revolution Settlement of 1688
The year of the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella and the unification of Aragon and Castile. 1469
He ruled Spain with Isabella from 1479 to 1516. Was heir to the throne of Aragon. Ferdinand
She ruled Spain with Ferdinand from 1479 to 1516. Was heiress of Castile. Isabella
The legal arm of the Spanish church. It was run by clerics but responsive to state policies, it existed to enforce religious uniformity and to ferret out the Muslims and Jews. Inquisition
Charles, son of Philip the fair and Juana (called “the Mad” for her insanity), was elected Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. 1519
Juana Called “the mad” for her insanity. She was married to Philip the fair, son of Maximilian of Austria, in order for Ferdinand and Isabella to strengthen their ties with the Austrian and the Flemish.
Charles V He was the son of Philip the fair and Juana. He inherited the kingdoms of Ferdinand and Isabella, and Maximilian of Austria's territories. In 1519 he was elected Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. He Ruled from 1516 to 1556. In 1556 he abdicated.
Philip II In 1556 his father, Charles V, abdicated and gave the Spanish half of his kingdom to him. He received an empire that was governed effectively, yet burdened by the specters of bankruptcy and heresy. He ruled from 1556 to 1598.
The year Charles V abdicated. 1556
He was the count of Olivares and he served Philip IV for over twenty years until his aggressive foreign and domestic policies brought ruin. He was also considered Spain’s one great statesman in the seventeenth century. Gaspar de Guzman
King of Spain from 1665 to 1700. At his death he declared favor of a French successor, Philip of Anjou, Louis the XIV’s grandson. Charles’s act, coupled with Louis XIV’s designs on the kingdom of Spain, provoked the War of Spanish succession. Charles II
Lasted from 1701 to 1713.Provoked by Charles II of Spain declaring favor of a French successor,Philip of Anjou.The war pitted the Holy Roman Empire,England,and the Netherlands against France.The result crushed Louis XIV's desire to unite Spain and France. War of Spanish Succession
The period of time in which the Netherlands revolts from Spanish rule. 1560s-1609
He attempted to revive Charlemagne’s empire, and was crowned Emperor of the Romans. Later the title was changed to the Holy Roman Empire. Otto I
The date Turks besiege Vienna. 1529
Treaty of Augsburg (1555) It Conferred on every German prince the right to determine the religion of his subjects.
Ferdinand II He ascended the throne of Vienna in 1619 when his father, Charles V, abdicated.
The Austrian Emperor from 1685 to 1705, during his reign war with the Ottoman Empire once again erupted. Leopold I
The year the Turks once again besiege the gates of Vienna. 1683
Ended warfare between Austria and the Ottoman empire that began during the reign of Leopold I. Treaty of Karlowitz(1699)
He led Austria’s army in the War of Spanish Succession. Eugene of Savoy
Austrian Emperor from 1711 to 1740, during his reign Austria emerged as a major European power. Charles VI
The year Prussian nobility granted the Elector power to collect taxes for the maintenance of a powerful army after he issued decrees rendering serfdom permanent. 1653
The year Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund makes one of the Prussian rulers an imperial elector with the right to choose imperial successor. 1415
He was Imperial Elector in Prussia from 1640 to 1688. Elector Frederick William
He was Imperial Elector in Prussia from 1713 to 1740. The alliance between aristocracy and monarchy was especially strengthened in his reign. Frederick William I
He was called “the Terrible”. He was Tsar of Russia from 1547 to 1584.He waged futile war against Sweden and made an internal police force that was entrusted with the administration of central Russia.These reasons doomed his attempt to impose absolutism. Ivan IV
His accession as Tsar of Russia in 1613 marks the emergence of a unified Russian State. Michael Romanov
Tsar of Russia from 1689 to 1725.Is considered the most important ruler in the Romanov dynasty.He brutally suppressed the independent aristocrats, while creating new ranks for those loyal to the court.He made the peasants personal property of their lords. Peter the Great
Created by: rahn