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MT anatomy test 1

Cell organelles, tissue types, and other things for my first anatomy test

Integumentary System The Skin and its derivatives (hair, nails glands)
Skeletal System The Skeleton is the framework on which the rest of the body is built. Bones also store minerals and serve as the site of blood cell production.
Muscular System Muscles make up about half the body's bulk. Working with the skeleton and the nervous system, they generate the force to move the body.
Nervous System Controls though; regulates consciousness and controls movement. The nervous and endocrine systems work together to monitor and maintain homeostasis.
Endocrine System Produce chemical messengers called hormones that circulate in the body tissue to help maintain an optimal internal environment, regulate metabolism, and govern growth and reproduction.
Cardiovascular System Comprised of the heart, blood and blood vessels; the cardiovascular system carries essential nutrients to the cells and removes waste products.
Lymphatic System (Immune System) Fights disease and helps the blood drain to drain the tissue spaces.
Respiratory System Responsible for the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs.
Digestive System The Gastrointestinal tract and supporting structures are responsible for ingestion, digestion, and absorption of nutrients, as well as elimination of waste.
Reproductive System Responsible for production of offspring. In Biological terms, reproduction is the primary function of any living organism including the human body.
Urinary System The kidneys filter body fluids in order to maintain the body's water and chemical balance and eliminate waste via urine.
Nerve Tissue Responsible for transmitting impulses that govern bodily functions, both voluntary and involuntary. Nerve tissue is also responsible for storing information and generating thought.
Muscle we work on Skeletal Muscle tissue
Muscle in organs Smooth muscle tissue
Heart Muscle Cardiac Muscle
Muscle Tissue contractile tissue, responsible for movement. There are three types: skeletal smooth and cardiac.
Connective Tissue Protects and supports the body and its organs (skeleton), binds the organs together (ligaments), and stores energy reserves (fat). This is most abundant tissue in the body.
Classifications of connective tissue connective tissue proper (CTP), cartilage, bone, bloode
Loose (Areolar) Sparse fibers, bind the skin to the underlying tissues (superficial fascia) and fils the spaces between the muscles(deep investing fascia). (CTP)
Adipose Areolar tissue with an abundance of fat cells. Protects against heat loss, cushions the organs, and stores energy. Found in the abdominal membrane and just under the skin(subcutaneous tissue). (CTP)
Reticular Forms the spongy supporting framework of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. (CTP)
Elastic Provides strength and stretch. Found in the walls of arteries, veins, and lung cells (alveoli) (CTP)
Dense Connective Tissue (Fibrous connective tissue) Tightly packed fibers in less ground substance. Fibers may be arranged in a regular or regular pattern.
Dense Connective Tissue Type Regular fibers are arranged parallel, it forms tendons and ligaments. Irregular fibers are matted, they encapsulate some organs, cartilage and bone. Supports the epithelial layer of the skin as dermis.
Transitional Shape varies depending upon the degree of stretch (Urinary Bladder) (Epithelial)
Pseudostratified Columnar Irregular shaped cylinders giving the appearance of layers (Trachea) (Epithelial)
Tissue Groups of related cells, which together perform certain functions. There are four basic types of tissue. They are epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve.
Histology Study of tissues
Epithelium Tissue that covers the external surfaces of the body, lines the internal cavities, and forms the glands.
Simple Squamous Single layer of flat cells which allows diffusion (capillary walls) (Epithelium)
Stratified Squamous Multiple layers of flattened cells, provides an effective barrier that is continually regenerated (epidermis) (epithelial)
Simple Cuboidal Single layers of cube shaped cells, allows for secretion (salivary glandes) (epithelial)
Stratified Cuboidal Several Layers of cube shaped cells (sweat and sebaceous glands) (epithelial)
Simple Columnar tall, cylindrical cells in a single layer (stomach and intestinal) (epithelial)
Prophase Duplicated chromatins (genetic minerals) condense. Now called chromatids they are paired and connected by a centromere. Structures called centrioles move to opposite poles and project and microtubules. The nuclear membrane breaks down.
Prometaphase The microtubules begin to interact with the chromatids.
Metaphase The microtubules project across the cell's center. The chromatids and their centromeres begin to group on the spindle fibers in the center of the cell.
Anaphase The centromeres divide. Sister chromatids separate and move toward the corresponding poles. They are now called chromosomes and there are 46 drawn to each pole.
Telophase Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles and the microtubules disappear. Cytokinesis occur. This means the cytoplasm divides and the cell membrane pinches inward producing two daughter cells.
Lysosome Membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes. They fuse with vacuoles and expel their enzymes into the vacuoles to digest engulfed materials. Enzymes in lysosomes can help digest food particles They are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum
Centriole Spindle fibers that play a role in cell division.
Cytosol The cell soup that surrounds the organelles. The cytosol and the organelles make up the cytoplasm.
Vacuole Membrane bound compartments that play a role in endocytosis.
Mitochondria Known as the cell's powerhouse. Converts organic materials into cellular energy, in the form of ATP, and contributes to numerous other cellular processes. Mitochondria are enclosed by a membrane.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Contains enzymes that play a role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The sarcoplasmic reticulum, found in muscle cells, is a special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium ions.
Cytoskeleton Filaments floating within the cytoplasm, which helps to maintain the cell's shape, plays a role in intracellular transport and cell division.
Golgi apparatus Composed of multiple cisternae, each region contains different enzymes. This is the packaging and shipping plant of the cell. It modifies, sorts, and packages cellular products for secretion.
Golgi Apparatus 2 Primarily modifies proteins, but plays a role in carbohydrate synthesis and lipid transport.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Interconnected network of cisterna (sac-like structures) held together by a cytoskeleton. Communicates with the nuclear membrane. Speckled with ribosomes. New proteins are transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus by vesicles.
Vesicle Small enclosed compartments that store, transport, or digest cellular products and waste.
Ribosome Small organelles that build proteins with instructions from the messenger RNA.
Nucleus The largest organelle, the nucleus serves as the cell's control center. Contains the cell's DNA and is enclosed by a membrane.
Nucleolus Clusters of proteins including DNA and RNA, the cell's genetic material. With instructions from the DNA, RNA combines with ribosomes to synthesize proteins. The nucleolus lies within the nucleus. It is not bound by its own membrane.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
Organelles STructures within the cell that perform a specific function.
Exocytosis Macromolecules are packaged in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane. Its contents are then released without the vesicle which is incorporated back into the cell's membrane.
Endocytosis Engulfing of large molecules through the plasma membrane, in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it and brings it into the cell. Examples include receptor mediated endocytosis.
Phagocytosis Cell eating
Pinocytosis Cell drinking
Active Transport Requires energy to move from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. Energy is supplied by the break -down of ATP, a molecule that when hydrolyzed supplies energy for metabolic processes.
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate.
Diffusion Random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration. It involves the movement of dissolved substances. Increases in heat, pressure and the concentration gradient, all increase the rate of diffusion.
Things that Diffuse through the cell membrane. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and alcohol all diffuse through the cell membrane.
Does diffusion require an energy source? It does not require an energy source.
Concentration Gradient Difference in the concentration of two solutions.
Osmosis Movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Filtration The movement of particles across a cell membrane due to a pressure gradient. Movement is from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
Facilitated Diffusion Some molecules, such as glucose, require escorts, in the form of carrier proteins, to enter a cell.
Anatomy The study of the structures of the body
Physiology The study of the functions of the body
Tissue A grouping of similarly specialized cells which together perform certain special functions
Organ A somewhat independent body part that performs a specific function(s).
Molecule A chemical combination of two or more atoms forming a specific chemical substance the smallest the amount of substance that can exist alone.
Atom The smallest particle of an element with all the properties of that element it consists of a positively charged nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and negatively charged electrons, which move in orbits around the nucleus.
Created by: JPZepeda