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Chapter 1: Intro to

Anatomical terms

Anterior (ventral) Towards the front
Posterior (dorsal) Towards the back
Supine lying face up
Superior above, towards the head
Medial middle, toward the midline
Proximal close to the point of attachment
cranial towards the head
Superficial near the surface
Inferior below, towards the feet
Lateral side, away from the midline
Distal further from the point of attachment
Caudal towards the tail (if there is a tail)
Deep away from the surface
Prone lying face down
Cephalic head
frontal forehead
orbital eye cavity
buccal cheek
mental chin
genital reproductive organs
patellar front of knee
sternal sternum;breastbone
pectoral chest
umbilical navel
inguinal groin
coxal hip
crural leg
Tarsal instep; ankle
Pedal foot
vertebral spinal column
dorsum back
lumbar lower back
gluteal buttocks
femoral thigh
occipital hack of head
acromial point of shoulder
brachial arm (area between the shoulder and the elbow)
cubital elbow
sacral between the hips (in rear)
perineum (perineal) area between the genitals and the anus
popliteal back of knee
plantar sole of foot
otic ear
mammary breast
antecubital front of elbow
antebrachial forearm
carpal wrist
palmar palm
digital finger
nasal nose
oral mouth
cervical neck
axillary armpit
abdominal abdomen
sagittal plane divides the body into left and right potions
transvere (horizontal plane) divides the body into upper and lower portions
coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
anatomy study of the structure of body parts and how they relate to each other
physiology study of the function of body parts
thoracic cavity enclosed by the rib cage and contains the lungs, heart, trachea and esophagus
mediastinum middle portion of the thoracic cavity contains the heart, thymus gland, trachea and esophagus
plueral cavity contains the lungs
pericardial cavity contains the heart
diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
abdominal cavity inferior to the diaphragm contains the stomach, liver, large and small intestines, etc.
pelvic cavity inferior to the abdominal cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and lower colon
lymphatic system picks up fluid leaked from tissues involved with immunity
endocrine system secretes chemicals that act a messengers between body parts
circulatory system transports nutrients to cells and carries wastes away
muscular system important in locomotion and generating body heat
digestive system breaks down food; absorbs nutrients; removes solid waste from the body
skeletal system support and protection of the body;site of blood cell production, stores minerals
integumentary system external support and protection;synthesizes vitamin D
urinary system eliminates nitrogenous waste from the body
nervous system integrates and coordinate all other body systems
circulatory system heart blood vessels
lymphatic system red bone marrow thymus spleen lymph nodes lymph vessels
nervous system brain spinal cord peripheral nerves
digestive system mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, anal canal, liver
endocrine system hormonal glands
respiratory system lungs, trachea, nasal cavity, pharynx, bronchi, bronchioles
respiratory system supplies blood with oxygen removes carbon dioxide
urinary system kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
muscular system skeletal muscle, tendons
skeletal system bones, ligaments and joints
integumentary system skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands
homeostasis the relative constancy of the body's internal environment
negative feedback mechanism feedback mechanism that returns the body to its original state (towards homeostasis) ex. regulation of blood glucose levels, body temp, rate of breath, etc.
positive feedback mechanism feddback mechanism that moves the internal environment of the body away from homeostasis ex. childbirth, blood clotting
6 abdominopelvic regions left and right hypochondriac left and right iliac left and right lumbar epigastric hypgastric umbilical epigastri
4 abdominopelvic quadrants right upper right lower left upper left lower
list the levels of organization in the proper order 1. chemical/molecular 2. cellular 3. tissue 4. organ 5. organ system 6. organism
Created by: smithscience



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