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Males -constant production of spermatozoon &fertility -decreases with age -~300mill/day
Females -cyclic ~3days/month -7mill follicles~400ovulated
Endocrine glands -hypothalamus & pituitary(in brain) -adrenal(above kidney's) -gonads
gonads -testis&ovaries -produce gametes -hormones produced
Hypothalamus -homeostatic regulator=temp,hunger,thirst,sleep stress -neuroendocrine=nueral & hormonal info
posterior pituitary release hormones= nuerosecretory peptide hormones (NPH)
nuerosecretory nuerons -conduct nerve impulses -produce, conduct & release NPH -pass into post pituitary
Nuerosecretory peptide hormones -produced in hypothalamus -carrier proteins to axon terminals -stored in secretory vessels -nerve impulses trigger exocytosis=releasing hormones
Hormones released? *nuerosecretory peptide hormones* *oxytocin *antiduiretic hormones
Oxytocin -smooth muscle contraction (milk ejection, contraction of uterus, induces labour) -secreted by stimulation of nipples/uterie distension
Antidiuretic hormones -acts on kidneys=retain water
Anterior pituitary -releasing & inhibiting hormones in cell body into vesicles -nerve impulses=hormones secreted into hypophysealportal vessels
hypophysealportal system blood flows from capillarybed to another without passing through heart
Anterior pituitary secretory cells -releasing & inhibiting hormones act on specific cells -clumps on termini of portal blood vessels -Gonadotrophs- gonadotrophin
Gonadotrophins e.g -FSH follicle stimulating hormone -LH luteinising hormone
Pulsatile release -hypothalamic secretion= discrete burst, prevents receptor desensitations & down regulation
Uterine tubes -fertilisation in ampulla (1)rich nutritive environment (2)epithelial linin, secretory colunar (3) mucosa surrounded by concentric layers of SM (4)ciliary movement transports
Eptopic pregnancy -fertilisation not in uterine wall -risk factors: smoking, older, prior damage
Ovary -oval 5-10g -3regions -ovarian cortex -centra ovarian medulla -inner hilium
Ovarian cortex -ovarian follicles
central ovarian medulla -ovarian stroma -steriod producing cells
Inner Hilium -point entry for nerves & blood vessels
Follicular development primordial follice-primary follicle-2nd follicle-mature follicle-ovulation-corpus luteum-corpus arlbican-fertilisation
Menopause -end of reproductive life -50-52yrs -ovary runs out of follicles -<1000 follicles
Spermatogenesis basics -sperm production -only in semeniferous tubes -after puberty -300-600sperm/g/testi/sec
phases of sperm production (1)mitotic division (2)meiotic division (3)spermiogenesis *puberty:gem cells activated
(1)mitosis -spermatogonial stem cells divide -form 2n -in basal compartments -move between stertole cells into adluminal compartments->spermatocytes
(2)meiotic division 1 spermatocyte(2n)-2 spermatocyte(n)-spermatid(n l)
Spermiogenesis -cytodifferentiation -spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa -move to lumen -
Created by: meglet