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lectures 3-4 mumby

parasympathetic - long PREsynaptic, short postsynaptic
sympathetic - short presynaptic, long postsynatpic
greater splanchnic nerve innervates sympathetic to adrenal medulla
NT at all autonomic ganglionic synapses acetylcholine
NT at symp. effector junction mostly NE thus adrenergic
NT at parasymp. effector junction always ACh thus cholinergic
Choline is actively transported into neuron then combined with _____ to make ACh via the enzyme _______. acetylCoA; choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)
toxin that blocks exocytosis of ACh, causing flaccid paralysis botulinum toxin A
toxin that causes massive release of exocytic vesicles containing ACh alpha-latrotoxin from black widow spider
pseudocholinesterase aka butyrylcholinesterase, a non-specific cholinesterase found in liver & in plasma; metabolizes mostly exogenous choline compounds
first-known naturally occurring agonist and antagonist of the nicotinic receptors nicotine/ACh and curare
first-known naturally occurring agonist and antagonist of the muscarinic receptors muscarine/ACh and atropine
Nicotinic receptors are _________ (type) channels that ___________ in order to depolarize and excite the neuron. ligand-gated ion channels; increase permeability of Na+ and Ca++
# of molecules of ACh needed to open channel 2 (two)
3 most notable places where nicotinic receptors are located all skeletal muscle neuroeffector junctions, all autonomic ganglion synapses and chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
this subtype of muscarinic cholinergic receptor is typically found at pre-synapse to feedback inhibit M2, predominate in heart
M1/3/5 intracellular effects PLC-beta increased activity, more Ca++ release and smooth muscle contraction/secretion
M2/4 intracellular effects inhibit adenylyl cyclase and Ca++ channels, activate K+ channels
ratio of epi:norepi produced by adrenal medulla 20 epi:80 norepi
rate-limiting rxn in NE/epi synthesis tyrosine --> DOPA via tyrosine hydroxylase
2 most common ways norepi is removed from synapse 70% recycling by reuptake and diffusion away from site of action
2 enzymes that metabolize catecholamines (not associated with removal from synaptic cleft) monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
all adrenergic receptors are of the ______ type GPCR
alpha-1 adrenergic receptors are coupled to ___ Gq, PLC and increased Ca++
alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are coupled to ____ Gi/o and inhibit
important role of alpha-2 receptors on presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals mediate feedback inhibition of NE release
beta-1/2 adrenergic receptors are coupled to ____ both to Gs, increased Ca++
inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase metyrosine
old HTN drug that prevents storage of NE reserpine
2 substances that block serotonin, NE and dopamine uptake in CNS & PNS cocaine and TCAs
Why not use muscarinic antagonists? there are no non-specific M antagonists, lots of unwanted side effects
sympathetic always has constant global basal tone whereas para is organized for discrete and local discharge during periods of minimal activity
Created by: sirprakes
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