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The Human Brain


What are the major subdivisions of the brain? Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Primary Motor Cortex *controls movement opposite side*more specific movement has larger area e.g hands*homunculus map-somatotopical*
Primary Somatosensory Cortex *sensations(pain,pressure,touch,temperature)*somatotopical*opposite side*large area for sensitive body parts e.g face,hands*
Primary Visual Cortex *seeing from opposite side*visuotopical-retinotopical*information-->secondary visual cortices(supplementary)
Vision range relating to the brain innerfield=occipital lobe---peripheral/outer field=deeper in occipital
Primary auditory Cortex *sounds-input from ear*Audiotopic- high-->low frequency
Verbal Language areas Broca's speech region*wernicke's speech region*Exners area
Broca's speech region Instructs motor cortex for speech
Wernicke's Speech region speech recognition*Interprets words & audio
Exner's speech region
Asphasia speech disorder involved with the brain=Wernicke's or Broca's region
What connects the broca's and Wernicke's speech regions? Arcuate Fisculusis
Non-dominant hemishere -Right side *Artistic/musical skills *Spatial Skills *Emotional expression *Body language *Conceptual understanding
Frontal association Cortex *personality*intelligence*mood*behaivour*cognitive function
Temporal Association Cortex *intelligence*agression*mood*memory
Parietal Association Cortex *spatial skills-abstract perception-faces-written words -concepts
Sulcri gap between folds
Gyri folds
fissure very deep fold
Two important Gyri *supramarginal & angular gyrus *reading & Writing
how many desmosomes? *30*not associated with skin=4*each spinal nerve to different regions
spinal nerves names and numbers total=31 *cervical=8 *thoracic=12 *Lumbar=5 *sucral=5 *coccygeal=1
Encapsulated receptors *myelinated *pressure & touch *fast 50m/s *discriminative (precision) *schwann cell
Non-ecapsulated receptors *non-myelinated *slow 1m/s *temperature & pain *non-discriminative (less & not as precise)
Touch receptors *myelinated *Meissner corpuscles
Pressure receptors *myelinated *pacinian Curpuscles
Temperature & pain *free nerve endings
high density receptors highly sensitive areas e.g hands, face
Touch and pressure damage *spinal cord -same side of body *before decussation
Touch and pressure damage *brain/stem -opposite side of the body -after decussation
Pain and Temperature damage *brain/stem -opposite side of the body -after decussation
Pain and Temperature damage *spinal cord -opposite side of the body -before decussation
Lesions in the brain/stem -associative -both pain,temp,pressure,touch on opposite side
Lesions in the spinal cord -dissociative -opposite sides effected -pain&temp=opp -press&touch= same
Discriminative -myelinated -fast 50m/s -decussation in brainstem medulla - (gracile&cuneate nuclei) -touch
Non-discriminative -non-myelinated -slow 1m/s -decussation in spinal cord -anterior white commisure
Parkinson symptoms *mood *tremor at rest *Brandykinesia *hypokinesia *rigidity
Hypokinesia -reduced movements
Brandykinesia -slowness of movements -illegible writing
tremor at rest -pill rolling -shaking -normally upper limbs
mood -emotionally flat -can't express emotions & inner feelings (in face)
Rigid -increased muscle tone and tension -rigid face-->unemotional
Treatments -dopamine replacement -surgical lesions -deep brain stimulation
Dopamine replacement -L-dopa(precussor of Dopamine) addded and relies on cells to convert it -dosage incr. with disease progression =side effects
surgical lesions -pallidotomy -thalamotomy
Pallidotomy -pallidus globus -freeze cells -instant results -high accuracy but not success
Thalamotomy - VA-VL thalamus -one side of the brain only
Deep brain stimulation -no damage to cells -GPi, Thalamus, subthalamic nucleus
novel new treatments *adult brain stemcells *embryonicstemcells *immature nuerons (fetal) *genetically engineered *gene therapy
Upper motor nueron damge *spastic paraylsis *increased reflexes *decrease precise voluntary movement
Lower motor nueron lesion *Flaccid paralysis *no reflexes or movement-wasted muscle-polio
Created by: meglet



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